SABARISH

Tuesday, 18 March 2014

INTRODUCTION TO AUDIO VISUAL AIDS IN EDUCATION

                                      INTRODUCTION  TO AUDIO VISUAL AIDS IN EDUCATION
Prepared by
SABARISH-P
M.Sc., M.Ed.,NET
Lecturer in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
Attur, Thrissur.

INTRODUCTION:
                       An education system is explicitly based on the quest “what to teach” and “how to teach”.  What to teach means learning material and how to teach implies teaching methodology. The quality of education largely depends upon the quality of teachers and the teaching learning resources available for the system.Today’s students are learning facts,skills and attitudes from  pictures ,television,recorded words,programmed lessons and other media.Once technology enters the school building ,dramatic renovations usually begin.With the technological magic touch,a simple school house turns in to a systemized learning centre.In the instances where the student is the centre of attention,technology is catalyst for educational change.Media is the means for transmitting messages.Media includes such things as prints,graphics,photography,audio communication,television,simulating games and computer.
 HISTORY:
Desiderious Erasmus(1466-1536)  advocated that children should learn through the aid of pictures.
John Comenius(1592-1670)  prepared a book ‘Orbis Sensulium Pictus’ (The world of sense organs)  containing 150 pictures on aspects of every day life.
Rousseau (1712-1778)  condemned the use of words  and stressed ‘things’.
Pestalozzi (1756-1827) in his object method based instruction on sense perception.
Nelson .I.Green  used the term ‘visual education’ in 1926.
Eric Ashby(1967) identified four revolutions in education:education from home to school,written word as tool of education,invention of printing and use of books and lastly in the fourth revolution in the use of electronic media.


 DEFINITIONS:
       BURTON: “audio visual aids are those sensory objects  or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce    learning”.
       KINDER,S.JAMES:  “ Audio-Visual Aids are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more   concrete, more realistic and more dynamic”.
       EDGER DALE: “Audio-Visual Aids are those devices by the use of. which communications of ideas between persons and groups in various teaching and training situations is helped. These are also termed as multi sensory materials”

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF USING AUDIO VISUAL AIDS:

        Interest in the role of the senses in learning was already there in educational circles when instructional media began their ascendancy.Research done by Cobun(1968) indicated that
                     1% of what is learned is from the sense of TASTE.
                     1.5% of what is learned is from the sense of TOUCH.
                     3.5% of what is learned is from the sense of SMELL.
                     11% of what is learned is from the sense of HEARING.
                     83% of what is learned is from the sense of SIGHT.
Also people generally remember
                  10% of what they READ.
                  20% of what they HEAR.
                  30% of what they SEE.
                  50% of what they HEAR AND SEE.
                  70% of what they SAY.
                  90% of what they SAY as they DO a thing
POPULAR SAYINGS ON AUDIO VISUAL AIDS
        I hear,I forget.
        I see ,I remember.
        I do, I understand.
MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS
     Audio visual aids are devices that help the teacher to clarify,establish,corelate and co-ordinate accurate concepts,interpretations and appreciations and enable him to make learning more concrete,effective,interesting,inspirational,meaningful and vivid.They help in promoting the triangular process in learning ie motivation,clarification and stimulation.The aids are the stimuli for learning ‘why’,’how’,’when’ and ‘where’.
According to Gandhiji  “true education of an intellect  can only come through a proper exercise and training of bodily organs  -  hands,feet,eyes,ears and nose.
Kothari Commission(1964-66) observed that it should indeed bring about an ‘educational revolution’ in the country.The supply of teaching aids to every school was essential for the improvement of the quality of teaching.
The National Policy on Education ,1986 and as modified in 1992 has stress on the use of teaching aid to make teaching learning more effective and realistic.
IMPORTANT VALUES:
1.Best Motivator : They are the best motivator.  The students works with more zeal & interest.
2.Clear Image : Clear image takes place when we, touch, handle, experience it.
3. Variety : "mere Chalk & Talk" do not help.  Audio –Visual Aids gives variety & provides different tools in ht hand of teacher.
4. Freedom : When Audio –Visual Aids are employed, there is a great scope for children to move about talk, laugh & comment upon.  Under such atmosphere the students work because they want to work, & not because the teacher wants tem to wotk.
5. Opportunities to Handle : many students always get a chance to handle the aids.
6. Helpful in Attracting the Attention : Attention is the true factor in any process of learning & teaching Audio – Video Aids helps the teacher in providing proper environment for capturing as well as sustaining the attention and interest of the students in class room.
7. Savings in Energy & Time : Due to effective implementation of "principle of Presentation", a good deal of energy & time of both the teacher & students can be saved.
8. Realism : The Audio –Visual Aids gives the real touch to the learning situation.
9. Encouragement to healthy class room interaction : Audio-visual aids through variety of stimuli, motivational, provisional of active participation of students, a good experience always encourage healthy class interaction between teacher and the learners.
10.Scope of education as a  mass scale : The audio-Visual aids like radio, tape, television etc always plays role in spreading mass education.
11. Positive environment for creative discipline : A balanced, rational, scientific use of Audio – Visual Aids develops , motivate, experience, attract the attention of the students and provides a variety of creative outlets for the utilization of their tremendous energy & keeps them busy in class room work.  This overall classroom environment becomes conductive to creative discipline.
  12. Antidote to the disease of verbal instruction: They help to reduce verbalism.The over use of words can result in serious problem such as verbalism and forgetting.
 13.Meeting individual difference :The use of variety of audio visual aids helps in meeting the needs of different types of students.
 14.Promotion of scientific temper:  By observing demonstrations and phenomena the cultivation of scientific temper developes.
15.Development of higher faculties :Use of audio visual aids stirs the imagination ,thinking process and reasoning power of the students ,and calls for creativity and inventiveness and other higher mental activities on the parts of the students .
16.Reinforcement to learners :Audio visual aids increases the probability of re occurance of the responses associated with them.
 CHARACTERISTICS
       They should be
Ø large enough to be properly seen by the students for whom they are meant
Ø motivate the learners
Ø according to the mental level of students
Ø easily portable
Ø up to date
Ø cheap
Ø simple
Ø accurate in every aspect
Ø meaningful and purposeful
Ø improvised.
 PRINCIPLES IN THE USE OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS
        For effective teaching to take place a a good method must be adopted by the teacher .  The teacher is always free to choose effective audio visual aids in the class room. Of courses there are also certain principles of Audio – Visual Aids in teaching methodology.  They are as follows:
Principle of Selection :
       1. The age level
      2. Other personality angles.
      3. They should have specific educational values
       4. They should help in the realization of learning desired objectives.
Principle of Preparation :
        1. As far as possible, the local material should be used in the preparation of aids.
        2. The teacher also must receive training in the preparation of aids.
        3. The teacher him/herself can prepare some aids or can take help of students also.
Principle of Physical Control :
      This is concerned with  the arrangement of keeping aids safely and also to facilitate to their lending to the teachers for se.
Principle of Proper Presentation :
           1. Teacher should carefully visualize the use of teaching aids before their actual presentation.
          2. They should be well acquainted themselves with the use & manipulation of the aids to be shown in the class room.
          3. The aids should be displayed properly. So that, all the students can see it, observe it, and can derive maximum      benefits from it.
 Principle of Response :
            This is the important principle.  This tells the teacher guide the students to respond actively to the audio visual stimulus so that they derive the maximum benefits in learning.


Principle of Evaluation :
   This Principle stipulates that there should be continuous evaluation of Audio Visual Aids materials & accompanying techniques in the light of desired objectives.
 ADVANTAGES
1. The teachers are forced to meet the demands of a changing civilization
2. New means and devices to increase the effectiveness of teaching
3. Audio visual devices are instructional devices which can be heard as well as seen
.4. to make teaching more concrete by employing suitable audio-visual aids
.5. A-V aids do render exceptional, specific and irreplaceable service to education
 6. The mental reaction of the pupils to audio-visual experience is both intellectual and emotional.
7. 86 % of our sense knowledge is attained through seeing and hearing and hence is the use of audio- visual aids
8. A-V Aids provide first hand experience to the children and hence the learning becomes interesting real and durable.
9. A-V Aids help the learner to grasp quickly and retain the experience so received longer.
10. They make a lasting impression on the minds of the learner
11. “one picture is worth athousand words”  They make learning realistic,  permanent, natural and easy
 Functions of A-V aids
12. They supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and hence, reduce meaningless word response of students.
13. They have high degree of interest for students
14. They make learning more permanent
15. They offer a reality of experience which stimulate self activity on the part of pupil.
DISADVANTAGES:
   1.apathy of the teachers
                    Teachers must be convinced that teaching with words alone is ineffective.
  2.Indifference of students
                     If the use is without a definite purpose they lose their significance and and importance.
  3.Ineffectiveness of the aids
                     Without proper planning,preparation,presentation,evaluation etc the aids do not prove their full  effectiveness.
  4.Financial hurdles
                     The lack of finances not enable the audio visual aids to do their best
  5.Absence of electricity
                     Most of the projectors,radio and TV cannot work without the electric current
  6.Lack of facilities for training
                     There must be provision to train teachers and workers in the use of these aids.
  7.Co-ordination between centre and state.
                      Good film libraries,museums,of audio visual education ,fixed and mobile exibitions  and educational melas should be organized both in central and states.
  8.Language difficulty
                      Most educational films are in english.We should have these in other important indian languages.
 9.Not catering to local needs
                     Little attention is paid in the production of audio visual aids  to the local sociological,psychological and pedagogical factors.

 10.Improper selection of aids
                       Films are not selected according to the class room needs.


                                               MULTIMEDIA
Multimedia means that computer information can be represented through audio, video, and animation in addition to traditional media (i.e., text, graphics drawings, images).
Definition:
Multimedia uses computers to present text, audio, video, animation, interactive features, and still images in various ways and combinations made possible through the advancement of technology. By combining media and content, those interested in multimedia can take on and work with a variety of media forms to get their content across. This is an exciting new field for those interested in computers, technology, and creative career options. Multimedia can be accessed through computers or electronic devices and integrates the various forms together. One example of multimedia would be combining a website with video, audio, or text images.
http://articulate.www.resources.s3.amazonaws.com/archive/images/images-global/zoom/spacer.gifMultimedia is the field concerned with the computer-controlled integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and moving images (Video), animation, audio, and any other media where every type of information can be represented, stored, transmitted and processed digitally.
A Multimedia Application is an Application which uses a collection of multiple media sources e.g. text, graphics, images, sound/audio, animation and/or video.
Hypermedia can be considered as one of the multimedia applications..

Multimedia approach
·        uses a number of media, devices, techniques in the teaching learning process.
·        convey vast information and provide many sources from which student can access the information.
·        improve the teaching learning process. Multimedia approach is not restricted to a single type of learning style.
·        provide the support of a wide range of activities.
·        aims at providing meaningful learning experience via a mix of media in order to achieve      predetermined objectives.
·        provides the opportunity to gain mastery of competencies and skills. The choice of the media has to be done carefully so that one does not hamper or reduce the effect of the other. That is each media must complement the other.
·        enable the learner to get access to information in dynamic environment.
      Procedure for Adopting Multimedia Approach
                      The following are the six steps to be followed while adopting the Multimedia Approach
First Stage
In this stage the teacher initiates the teaching – learning activities.Teacher deliver a well prepared lesson based on the objectives formulated. Teacher could use a variety of media for his presentation.
Second Stage
Teacher demonstrates a specific and specialized unit using a mix of media. The teacher may provide learner with programmed learning materials, cassettes, CD's etc.
Third Stage
This is a preparatory stage for the learner before he stars independent learning. The student discusses with peer students and teachers his plan of action.
Forth Stage
In this stage the learner actively participates. He uses variety of media and materials in his self-study.
Fifth Stage
In this stage the learner integrates theory and practice.
Sixth Stage
In this stage learner finds that teaching – learning activities have to be organized on a higher level. The student involved in critical analysis, critical evaluation and exchange of ideas.
Role of Teacher in Multimedia Approach
Teacher has to adopt a number of methods and techniques.
Teacher has to aware of the different available media and their availability.
Teacher should be physically competent to use and demonstrate the use of the different media. Teacher should be skillful enough to make a judicious choice of media and competent enough to mix them sequentially and in an orderly manner. Teacher's role is that of a facilitator or manager of activities. Teacher has to lead his student for independent, individualized learning.Prerequisites for developing a Multimedia Instructional device
Advantages of the multimedia Approach
Multimedia approach enable the student to represent information using several different media.
Ø Can arouse the curiosity among the learner and provide them vivid impressions.
Ø Multimedia can take into account different learning styles – some pupil learn by interpreting text, while others require more graphical representations.
Ø Can develop a positive attitude among the learners towards the teaching-learning process.
Ø Multimedia Approach allows for self-pacing
Ø Technique of simulation can be effectively applied through the multimedia approach.
Ø Helps in development of higher order thinking skills.
Ø Multimedia approach provides the student the flexibility of 'any where', 'any time' learning.
Ø Helps in developing group and interpersonal skills.
Ø Effective remediation programmes can be implemented through the multimedia approach.
Ø Multimedia approach can bridge language barriers since audio is not the only means of communication.
Disadvantages of multimedia: 
Ø   Expensive
Ø  Not always easy to configure
Ø  Requires special hardware
Ø   Not always compatible
Ø Lost in ‘cyber space’
Ø Time consuming
Ø Cognitive overload
Ø Non interactive –if one way ,no feedback.
APPLICATIONS
1.Creative industries
            Creative industries use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from fine arts, to entertainment, to commercial art, to journalism, to media and software services provided for any of the industries listed below.  An individual multimedia designer may cover the spectrum throughout their career. Request for their skills range from technical, to analytical and to creative.
2.Commercial
          Much of the electronic old and new media utilized by commercial artists is multimedia. Exciting presentations are used to grab and keep attention in advertising. Industrial, business to business, and interoffice communications are often developed by creative services firms for advanced multimedia presentations beyond simple slide shows to sell ideas or liven-up training.  Commercial multimedia developers may be hired to design for governmental services and nonprofit services applications as well.
3. Entertainment and Fine Arts
            In addition, multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop special effects in movies and animations.  Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online.  Some video games also use multimedia features. Multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of just sitting by as passive recipients of information are called Interactive Multimedia.
4. Education
         In Education, multimedia is used to produce computer-based training courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopedia and almanacs.  A CBT lets the user go through a series of presentations, text about a particular topic, and associated illustrations in various information formats.  Edutainment is an informal term used to describe combining education with entertainment, especially multimedia entertainment.
5. Engineering
        Software engineers may use multimedia in Computer Simulations for anything from entertainment to training such as military or industrial training.  Multimedia for software interfaces are often done as collaboration between creative professionals and software engineers. www.eshikshak.co.in
6. Industry
      In the Industrial sector, multimedia is used as a way to help present information to shareholders, superiors and coworkers. Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee training, advertising and selling products all over the world via virtually unlimited web-based technologies. www.eshikshak.co.in
7. Mathematical and Scientific Research
       In Mathematical and Scientific Research, multimedia is mainly used for modeling and simulation.  For example, a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance.
8.Medicine
       In Medicine, doctors can get trained by looking at a virtual surgery or they can simulate how the human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and then develop techniques to prevent it. 
 9.Multimedia in Public Places
       In hotels, railway stations, shopping malls, museums, and grocery stores, multimedia will become available at stand-alone terminals or kiosks to provide information and help.  Such installation reduce demand on traditional information booths and personnel, add value, and they can work around the clock, even in the middle of the night, when live help is off duty.
INSTRUCTIONAL KITS OR MEDIA PACKAGES:
     Good kits are really packages mini systems.  They usually contain a variety of sytematically related materials and may include motion picture or film loops; slides or filmstrips; disc or cassette tapes;phodtographic pictures, specimens,models either commercially prepared or umprovised; apparatus guide sheets, programmed materials and testing materials for the teachers and students for the topic or unit.  Although the kits provide necessary ready-made materials for the teachers, the teachers must always be on the lookout to select a variety of materials for conveying information suidtable to each learner.  If necessary he must revised tdhe materials or device his own to suit his classroom setting.  Multimedia packages may contain all resources needed to provide learning in a specific area.  The use of instructional material included in the package is carefully planned to promote the desired learning outcomes and to realize the set objectives.  The materials are evaluated and vlidated for their effectiveness in their specific use in the classroom.  The use of different resources is made by the teacher in an integrated way so that reinforces the other.

MULTIMEDIA PACKAGES:
     There are many multimedia packages where a teacher’s for as a presenter of information or giver of feedback is taken over by some inanimate media.  Eg:-Programmed learning materials,books,films etc.  But there are certain functions of a good teacher like initiating the learning process, motivating the learning,guiding him wherever necessary to change the package etc.  Which are difficult for the inanimate midia to take over.  Some sophisticated computer assisted instruction programmes go a long way in taking up these functions as well.  Some of these functions are carried out by the learner himself either independently or with the help of the peer.

TEACHER’S ROLE:
     Gradually a teacher’s  role will be more than that of designed multimedia packages rather than that of a delivery man the delivery  function being taken by many media or peer groups.
1.     Teacher has to adopt a number of methods and techniques to answer demonsterating, problem solving, analytic-synthetic,depending up on demands of teaching-learning situation.
2.     Teacher has to learn the use of application of different media ,select and utilize them in proper combination for the attainment of objectives in a particular situation.
3.     Teacher’s role is shifted from a direct communication of information to that of guiding student learning and make students active participant in the learning process.
4.     The teacher has to lead student’s to independent individualized learning with use of T.V lesson,CAI,teaching machine etc
5.     Teacher should practice theory in to action and practical use in day to day life planning and organizing field works,laboratory and work shop activities etc.

CONCLUSION:
                     Audio visual aids are an important tool for teachers to use and enhance the education of their students.There are a variety of audio visual aids that can be used in the classroom.It is important to use a variety of teaching methods to teach all students with their varying learning preferences.Also be sure to only utilize audio visual aids which will not distract from student’s learning experiences.There are many modes of instruction which requires  use of many media.Teachers ,pupil and software designers have responsibility for developing multimedia information in handling skills.