Lecturer in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
The term computer managed instruction CMI simply stands for the instruction managed with the help of computer technology. In CMI the computer gathers, stores, and manages information to guide students through individualised learning experience. It directly calls for the services and applications of computers and applications of computers in the field of instruction.The information on a student’s progress in working with the computerised program, namely his performance on every test item, keeping track of his mistakes and strengths and providing a valuable feedback to the teacher etc. can all be managed effectively by the computer. Such a system which maintains this kind of book keeping along with the instructional programme is called as CMI.CAI is more effective only when it is linked to CAI. It helps to assess the learners present level of knowledge, weaknesses or gaps in his learning and remedial action possible.
BURKE(1982):“CMI is the systematic control of instruction by computer. It is characterised by testing ,diagnostic learning, prescription and through record keeping”
LEIB(1982):“CMI includes all applications of the computer aid to the instructor in instructional management without actually doing the teaching”
However ,in the language of computer technology, computer managed instruction may be defined as a category of computer programme that may be used by educators and instructors to organize and manage data related to instruction for attaining the stipulated instructional objectives in a most effective way.Four areas of computer management support to teachers are,
a. Constructing, scoring, and analysing tests.
b. Keeping records of student performance and progress through courses.
c. Providing guidance to students and advising them on the choice of next course module.
d. Reporting on the performance and progress of students to individual students,tutors and educational administrators of the institutions.
In CMI, on the basis of initial interaction with the student, the computer suggests the type of models of instruction for him. The computer will note down the attainment as well as draw backs of the learner in order to construct his profile. This profile is used to plan the learning unit for the student, whether it should be modified, enriched or a remedial module should be added. Student’s achievement is measured in relation to criterion attainment with reference to the syllabus of the module and assessed in relation to the course requirement. Following the computers decision, there could be discussion with the student and teacher and the instruction of the student is so managed that efficient personalised learning takes place.
As said in the above definition, computers are able to perform the task of managing instructions with the help of a category of suitable software programme specifically designed for this purpose. CMI analyses the relationship between various factors pertaining to a pupil and suggests activities appropriate to individual students. Some of the functions performed with the help of such developed soft wares related to the organization and management of instructions are described below.
1.Diagnosis of entry behaviour of learners
Computer programmes help in the early diagnosis of the strengths and weakness of the learners in terms of their previous knowledge and experiences related to a particular knowledge and skill area, their interests, attitudes and aptitudes, the needs and motives as well as other personality traits for determining their potentiality for going ahead in the learning of a particular instructional course or achieving a set of instructional objectives.
2.Setting of instructional objectives
Computer soft wares are available that can help in analysing test data and other data base information about the characteristics of the learners in relation to the needs and purpose served by a particular type of instruction at one or the other stages of school,college or public education.it will help in formulating the goals and objectives for a particular coarse or piece of instruction.
3.Generating individualized instructional plans
Depending upon the need, characteristics, nature, and individuality of the learners, computer software are able to generate and organize individualized instructional plans for countless learners at one or the other times-average, gifted, slow, disabled.
4.Generating instructional materials and learning experiences
Suiting to the individualized instructional plans and strategies computer software can generate appropriate instructional material and opportunities of interactive learning experiences to the learners of varying need, interests , and abilities. A huge data bank of all types of information and instructional material is easily available through well prepared software packages, websites, online conferencing, networking etc. The material generated and developed for instructional purposes may be used on a computer based system or in other forms of instructions . eg. Programmed instruction.
5.Availability of instructional material into curricular units
For the proper organization and management of the instructions, an inventory of the instructional resources available to the learners may be stored in the computer’s data bank. The total resources may be divided into properly required units having clearly specified set of objectives. There shall be clear directions available for telling the learner s what to do for achieving the stipulated objectives.it may asks them to read a book, work-off self-administered paper and pencil exercises , conduct experiment with a science kit, attend group instruction or see a film , and so on.
6.Monitoring of progress
The computer managed instruction proves very effective in monitoring the progress of each and every individual learner in a quite satisfactory way. What one has done, is doing or will be doing in future can be properly monitored with the help of the great capacity of computers in keeping track of the countless learners in the progress of their instructional outputs. They are able to register the low achievement of learners, detect the deficiencies in learning along with the possible causes and provide suggestions for overcoming the learning difficulties.
7.Providing remedial instructions
Computer software can very well manage any progress related to remedial instructions to the needy learners. On the basis of the learning difficulties diagnosed and the probable causes detected, these softwares now can suggest all the possible remedies helpful in the planning and organization of instructions.
8. Management of information and record keeping
Computer software may help in a big way for the collection, storage, classification, and dissemination of information through a well organised system of record keeping and its maintenance. Storage of information and record keeping are very much essential for the proper organization and management of instructions. The teachers and the learners may get a big help for their teaching and learning from the storehouses of such information data related to their respective field. All types of information and data related to the interests , abilities , educational and environmental backgrounds of the learners belonging to their past and present can be very well available for the students in their instructional outputs and overall welfare. Their educational progress can be very well available for the students in their instructional output and overall welfare. Their educational progress can be very well monitored and maintained through the help of a well maintained data record of all the individual learners which may prove quite helpful in maintaining an essential link between the classroom instructions and its administrative management.
9.Organization of testing and evaluation programmers
Computer software may provide valuable services in the task of managing and organising testing and evaluation programmes related to classroom instructions and educational progress of students in a variety of ways. They are helpful in assessing the study behaviour of the students for getting them admitted to a course of academic or professional study. Later on, day-to-day, periodic or end evaluation are all possible through the well framed unit or course tests and other evaluation techniques available with the suitable software.
10.Generating all types of reports
Computer software helps the processes and outputs of the instructional programmes by generating all progress and information reports related to the tasks of instruction. If you need the report related to the entry behaviour of pupils, it is available on the computer’s hard disc or files maintained for the purpose. You may have a printed copy of the same for planning the individualised instruction for your students. The progress reports can send to parents and also it can be used for the removal of their learning difficulties.