Monday, 21 September 2015

B.Ed. notes-Educational Technology Module III : INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

B.Ed. notes-Educational Technology

Prepared by
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant Professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education

Attur, Thrissur.

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Ø  ICT Meaning

·   ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or reception of digital data.

Ø  Communication Technology
·   Communication Technology implies the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to exchange information verbally or nonverbally.
·   It is processing of information in terms of accessing information, decoding information and sending it via a medium.
·   Communication Technology is the electronic systems used for communication between individuals or groups.

"ICT is defined, as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information."
 -Mangal (1997)

Ø  ICT – Characteristics

·         ICT is the integration of Hardware and Software Technology
·         ICT fosters the dissemination of information and knowledge
·         The ‘digital’ and ‘virtual’ nature
·         ICT is global – anywhere, any time
·         ICT is a key enabler in the creation of networks

Ø  Advantages of ICT in Education
·         Quick access to information
·         Easy availability of updated data
·         Connecting Geographically dispersed regions
·         Catering to the Individual differences
·         Wider range of communication media
·         Wider learning opportunities for pupils

Ø  Limitation of ICT in Education

·         ICT supposedly endangers the child’s social development.
·         ICT is supposedly to endanger the child’s intellectual development.
·         Decreasing of child’s emotional development.
·         Child’s health is endangered.
·         Misuse of ICT - A complete control over the child’s usage of ICT is today practically impossible.
·         Expensive


·   ‘informatics’ - the study of information processing
·      Educational Informatics is the study of the application of digital technologies and techniques to the use and communication of information in learning and education.
·      Educational Informatics is the development, use, and evaluation of digital systems that use pedagogical knowledge to engage in or facilitate resource discovery in order to support learning.
·      Studying the techniques and impact of ‘digital technologies’ within the context of the ‘use and communication of information’ in educational settings.
·      Educational informatics represents the intersection of three disciplines: teaching and learning, information science, and information communication technologies (ICTs)


        ‘Inter connected collection of autonomous computers.’

 Communication Media of Computer Network (Means/ways of computer networking)
o        Copper wire
o        Microwaves
o        Fiber optics.
o        Communication satellites.

1. Local Area Network (LAN)
        Local area networks are networks with in a single building or campus or up to a few kilometers in size.
Characteristics of LAN
        Low delay.
        Very few errors.
        Higher speed.
        LANs are restricted in size (Functions within 10 KMs).
        Transmission time is bounded.
        Simple network management.

2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN).
        MAN is an extension of LANs.
        It normally covers the area of a city (are less than 100KMs).
        Uses a combination of different hardware and transmission media to cover distances efficiently.

3. Wide Area Network (WAN)
        Networking in a large geographical area, often a country or continent.

Characteristics of WAN
        WAN uses telephone lines or satellite links as a medium.
        LAN may be connected to WAN.
        It covers different cities or countries.
        WANs are not owned by anyone organization but are under collective ownership and management.
        Complex network design.
        Error rate is large.
        Speed is less compared to LAN

            Internet is a huge collection of computer networks that can be communicated with each other. This word is coined from the words ‘interconnection’ and ‘network’.
Through this, each computer user can communicate and share common resources with other users.

Ø  Web Server
        It is a programme and a computer clubbed into one entity which responds to the requests from web   browsers for internet resources. The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages to clients
Eg:-Apache HTTP Server, Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS), Sun Java System Web Server
Ø  Web Browser
        It is a programme that allows a user to display and interact with a ‘hyper text’ documents.
Eg:- Internet explorer, Net Scape navigator, Mozilla firefox, Google Chrome
Ø  Home Page
        Home page is the first hypertext document to be shown when a user follows a link to the web server.
Ø  Search engines
        Special tool to search for information on the net.
        Eg:- AltaVista, Yahoo, Google.
Ø  Website
        A collection of related pages on particular information.
Ø  Web Page
        It is a file of information stored on a web server.


·      WWW is a vast collection of documents stored on internet computers.
·      It was invented by Tim-Berner-Lee.
·      It provides easy access to information.
·      It is a system of media rich documents spread across the internet, linked with each other.
·      WWW documents contain texts, pictures, sound, video, etc.

·         Collection of private computer networks within an organization.
·         Internal or private network of an organization based on internet technology (such as hypertext and protocols) and accessed over the internet.
·         An intranet is meant for the exclusive use of the organization and its associates (customers, employees, members, suppliers, etc.) and is protected from unauthorized access with security systems such as firewalls.
·         An intranet should be closed off to the general public and require a login for authorized users.


O  For sharing resources.
O  For high reliability.
O  For saving money.
O  For using as communication medium.
O  For accessing remote information.
O  For person to person communication.
O  For interactive entertainment.


·         Both upload and download refer to the process of transferring a file
·         Upload means to transfer a file or files from your own computer to another computer.
·         Uploading is the process of copying files from your computer to a remote location. For example, you might transfer a file from your home PC to the Yahoo! computer that stores your Web Hosting files.
·         Download means to transfer a file from another computer to your own computer.
·         Downloading is the process of copying files to your computer from a remote location. For example, You might download a file from your Web Hosting account to your home PC


·         For a website to be viewed by other people it must be stored on a computer (server) that is connected to the internet.
·         A company that provides this service is known as a host; and the service it provides is hosting.


·         Web pages and documents on the Internet that provide useful information.

        A collection of direct links to predefined web pages which is stored in your web browser.
        Bookmarks can be created and managed by the user themselves. Most browsers come packaged with several existing bookmarks.


·         Any Website that  is useful for public

General Education Kerala
Kerala PSC
IT @ School
Calicut University
MG University
Kannur University
Kerala University

v  Hypertext is  generally the text displayed on a computer display or other electronic device
v  It may have links  to other text which the reader can immediately access.
v  The hypertext pages are interconnected by hyperlinks, typically activated by a mouse click, key press  or by touching the screen.
v  Hypertext is sometimes used to describe tables, images and other with hyperlinks.
v  Hypertext is the underlying concept defining the structure of the World Wide Web with pages often written in the HTML.
v  It enables an easy-to-use and flexible connection and sharing of information over the Internet.
Markup language
v  Markup language is a modern system for annotating a document in a way that is distinguishable from the text.
v  The idea and terminology evolved from the "marking up" of paper manuscripts.
v   A widely used markup language is Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web.

            Hyper Text Mark up Language (HTML) is a standard language used for developing web pages’.
            HyperText Markup Language is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text, images and other material into visual web pages.
History of HTML

n  In 1980, a mark up language, i.e., Standard Generalized Mark up Language or SGML was developed.
n  HTML was evolved from SGML.
n  Presently, HTML is advanced to DHTML and then to XML (Extensible Mark up Language) and now to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
v  HTML Coding
n  HTML codes are known as ‘HTML Tags’.
n  An HTML document has two parts.
                        a) Markup Language   -Tags.
                        b) Web page content   -Text Information.

v   Points to be kept in mind while writing HTML documents
1  Each tag is enclosed within a ‘<’ (left bracket) and ‘>’ (right bracket). This differentiates them from text.
1  An opened tag must be closed.
1  Opening tag is denoted by < > .
1  Closing tag is denoted by </ > .
1  Generally the HTML tags are written in upper case.
1  It is not a case sensitive language.
1  Coding can be done in any text Editor (Windows-notepad, Ubuntu –G.Edit)
1  When we save HTML file, we should add .html or .htm after the file name.
v  Structure of an HTML Document.
q  Header or Head Section        
                                                Head Section

q  Body Section
                                                Body Section or Actual Text
v  Merits of HTML
¿  HTML is simple but powerful formatting language to use.
¿  The simplicity allows anyone to create web pages.
¿  HTML documents are device independent (works on any platform)
¿  The web pages can be linked together using links.
¿  The pages can be updated at anytime.
v  Limitations of HTML
¿  HTML does not have any programming capabilities.
¿  Require expertise knowledge.
¿  Time consuming.
¿  Difficult to remember coding
Ø  KompoZer
  • KompoZer is a complete Webpage Authoring System that combines web file management and easy-to-use WYSIWYG (What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get) web page editing program.
  • KompoZer is designed to be extremely easy to use.
  • Using it a non-technical computer user can create an attractive professional-looking web site without needing to know HTML or web coding.
KompoZer Features
n   KompoZer is a good WYSIWYG (What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get)  editor.
n  It based on the Mozilla platform.
n  It is powered by Mozilla
n  It is a “what you see is what you get” editor with built-in file management and FTP to get your pages to your web hosting provider.
n  It is easy to use and, best of all, it's free.
n  Text editor + Web page creator
n  Page preview
n  Color coding
n  Search and replace
n  Can edit JavaScript
n  Can edit CSS (Cascading Style Sheets.)
n  Freeware

n  No subscription fee required