Process of Science Domain- Science Process Skills
(13 Process skills in UNESCO Source book)
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
lScientists use certain processes (skills).
l13 process skills approved by UNESCO.
5) Using number relations
6) Using spatial relations
9) Making operational definitions
10) Formulating hypothesis
11) Identifying and controlling variables
12) Interpreting data
lThrough observation the learner acquires knowledge through his sense organs. Observation should be objective and meaningful. Thus observations become an integral part of the method of science.
lClassification means recognizing more and more properties (collected information) and ordering them. The skill of classification varies with age, standard, and mental growth of the learners.
lMeasuring is a part of scientific investigation process. The skill of measuring can easily be practiced along with other skills rather than in isolation.
lDoes the volume of air change during deep inhalation and exhalation?
lAcquisition of knowledge becomes fruitful only when the gathered knowledge is communicated to others.
lDifferent ways for communication - oral, written, etc.
lMore effective, when it is done through the most scientific way and with supporting material
5 Using number relations
lThis process skill refers to the ability to illustrate the available data using mathematical language. See, such a learning activity.
lThe ratio of different pea plants obtained in the F2 generation is given in the checker board. Analyse and find out the number of each type of Pea plant and their ratio
lThe learner should be able to use number of relations, and then only he would be able to solve the above problem.
6 Using space time relationship
lAbility to find out the relationships, between size, shape, distance, movement, speed, directions, time etc.
lWhen we make vegetable garden, what are the factors related with the above process skill?
lAbility of drawing conclusions by analyzing the data properly
lIt is more than mere observation or data collection
lWhen we analyze a table of data what are the inferences that we can make?
lAbility to forecast what would happen in future
lIt is based on data obtained so far
lIn science, prediction is valid only with the support of scientific evidences.
lThe students of science should develop skill of prediction based on the science concepts acquired by them so far.
9 Making operational definitions
lDefine a scientific concept operationally,
lThe definitions, he makes may reflect his experiences also.
lWhenever he wants to apply these concepts in a real life situation, this operational definition may help him.
lLet's examine how would a student, who studies about agriculture try to define the term agriculture operationally. From his information, the definition he can formulate may be like "Agriculture is cultivating plants or rearing animals for various needs and economic benefits of human beings".
10 Formulating hypothesis
lHypothesis can be referred to as a temporary intellectual, tentative solution for a problem
lThe process of problem solving proceeds on the basis of the hypothesis formulated
lLet us see an example
lThe vital capacity of cigarette smokers is lower than that of others. Is it true?
lFormulate a tentative guess i.e., smokers have low vital capacity
lThe scientific inquiry on the problem starts with this hypothesis.
11. Interpreting data
lInformation becomes more meaningful
lwhen they throw light on new knowledge.
lSkill of interpreting data is important to be developed among learners of science.
12. Controlling Variables
lwhen we plan an experiment, variables are to be controlled
lAn example: Experiments of Charles, Joules & Boyles laws where Temperature, pressure & volume are controlled.
lExperimenting is the integrated form of process skill, which includes
lskills like observing,
linterpreting data etc.
lIt is essential to formulate a hypothesis to prove whether CO2 is needed far photosynthesis.
lIn high school classes we should provide opportunities for doing experiments.
lBy doing experiments, the learner could acquire many process skills.
As mentioned earlier, the process skill domain of science is very significant. The teachers while planning learning activities, should focus on the development of the process skills.