Saturday, 21 November 2015



Prepared by
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant Professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
Attur, Thrissur.

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This model has been developed, based on the studies  made by Jerome S.Bruner and his associates mainly to explain the nature of concepts and the strategies of concept formation.
Description of the model
1.     Syntax

Phase I       Presentation of Data and Identification of the Concept
¨     Teacher presents labeled examples.
¨     Students compare attributes of positive and negative examples.
¨     Students generate and test hypotheses.
¨     Students state a definition according to the essential attributes.
In the first phase of the model, the teacher presents the positive and negative examples in the pre-determined sequence. This data may be in the form of picture anecdotes, sketches, diagrams, events or any other illustrations.
The pupils are told that there is one idea common in all positive examples and they have to compare and justify the attributes and form some hypotheses about the concept.
When the pupils have analyzed the examples and hypothesized, the teacher asks the students to state a definition according to the essential attributes.
Phase II      Testing Attainment of the Concept
¨     Students identify unlabelled examples as “yes” or “no”.
¨     Teacher confirms student’s hypotheses.
¨     Teacher names the concept. Teacher restates definition according to essential attributes.
¨     Students generate examples.
In the second phase, to test student’s attainment of the concept, the teacher presents unlabelled examples. The students identify them as positive or negative. The teacher asks for reasons and confirms their hypotheses. When he knows that the students have attained the concept, he names the concept. He does not ask the students to name it become they are not familiar with the name of the concept. Only when the students have already attained the concept (Prior of the Cam lesson) and the teacher uses the model for concept clarification and he may ask the students to name the concept.
To test the attainment of the concept further, the teacher asks the pupils to generate examples and label then as positive or negative instances of the concept.
Phase III    Analysis of the thinking strategies
¨     Students describe thoughts
¨     Students discuss role  of hypotheses and attributes
¨     Students discuss type and number  of hypotheses
¨     Teacher evaluates the strategies.
In the third phase, of the model the teacher analyses the thinking strategies employed by the students. The students report their pattern of hypothesizing, whether they focused on attributes or concepts, whether they did so, one at a time or several at once, and how they changed their hypotheses when it was not confirmed.
Thinking Strategies
           In the model, mainly two kinds of strategies are used-who list and partist.
          The wholist strategy is to take the first positive instances of the concepts as a whole, i.e., comparing all the attributes of the first positive instance to these subsequent instances and modify the hypotheses accordingly. The first instance becomes a concept hypotheses and sequent decision depends on the attributes similarity and difference between the first positive instance and the subsequent one’s.
          In the partist strategy the choice of a hypothesis is based on only part of the initial example. If the initial hypothesis is not confirmed then the partist refers back to all prior instances and chooses another hypothesis. Thus a partist
¨     Beings with  part of the instance
¨     Maintains the hypotheses till the positive and negative instances confirm
¨     Changes hypotheses  with positive information and  chooses hypothese not previously made
2.     Social System:
The model has a moderate structure. The teacher assumes a major role initially in choosing the concept, selecting and organizing or sequencing the data. The teacher controls action but with subsequent phases students interaction is encouraged. In the Reception Oriented Model the structure moves from high to moderate.
3.     Principles of Reaction:
The model emphasized teacher support during the flow of the lesson with due with due regard to hypothetical nature of discussion. Pupils should be helped in creating a dialogue in which students test their hypotheses against each other. The teacher should focus pupils attention on specific features of examples and finally assist the pupils  in discussing and evaluating their thinking strategies. The teacher should encourage analysis of the merits of various strategies rather than attempting to seek the one best strategy for all pupils in all situations. 
4.     Support System:
Well organized reference material is the most essential support required for this model, carefully selected and organized materials and data in the form of discrete units easily serves as examples.
5.     Effects of the  Model:
The Concept Attainment Model accomplishes several instructional goals depending on the emphasis of the particular lesson.
Understanding the nature of concepts, specific concepts, improved concept building strategies and inductive reasoning ability are the instructional effects of the model.
The nurturant effects come from experiencing the environment created by the model. These effects are sensitivity to logical reasoning in communication, tolerance of ambiguity (but appreciation of logic) and awareness of alternative perspectives.
Role of teacher in the model
The teacher using the reception model of concept attainment should choose the concept, select and organize the material into positive and negative examples and sequences the examples: For this the teacher has to keep the material well structure. Thus the teacher acts as a recorder.  Later he presents cues and additional data. He is a supportive agent. The student does not invent new concepts but attains the ones selected by the teacher .
Application of the Model
          The Concept attainment model is useful with all ages and grate levels. But a teacher will have to absorb the essential ideas of the model and incorporate these into natural teaching style and form. Concept attainment model is an excellent evaluation tool when teachers want to determine whether important ideas introduced earliers have been mastered since it quickly reveals the depth of  student’s understanding. The model can be used in opening up a new conceptual area by inviting a sequence of individual or group inquiries. It also helps in inductive reasoning.
          According to Bruner and his associates there are four strategies used in Selection Oriented Concept Attainment Model. They are:
1.     Simultaneous Scanning           2. Successive Scanning
3.  Conservative Focusing            4. Focus Gambling

Name of the teacher                 :                                     Std:
Subject                                    :                                     Date:
Topic                                       :                                      Period:
1.     Name of the concept                   :                                     LEVER
2.     Definition of the concept   :         A level is a simple machine that rotates
about a fixed point.

3.     Essential Attributes
¨     Reduce human effort
¨     A pivot around which the lever rotates
4.     Non-Essential Attributes
¨     Size of the lever
¨     Materials  used for the preparation of the lever
¨     Nature  of the use
5.     Positive Examples                                Negative  Examples
i)                   Nut cracker                                  i)       Knife
ii)                Lime squeezer                               ii)      Blade
iii)              Scissors                                        iii)     Spade
iv)              See-saw                                        iv)     Chisel

6.     Unlabeled Examples:
Screw, needle, fishing rod, forceps,  pliers, sickle, bottle opener, balance.
7.     Mode of Presentation : Diagrams and Models
8.     Reference Material
New Knowledge library Encyclopedia
Popular Science Book
Process Skills
1.     Observing             2. Classifying                 3. Measuring
4. Communicating     5. Interpreting data                  6. Experimenting

Phase – I
Presentation of data and identification of the concept.
Teacher presents labeled examples i.e., teacher present positive examples like nutcracker, lime squeezer, scissors, and see-saw and negative examples like knife, blade, spade and chisel.
Pupils are asked  to
(a)  Find out the common ideas in all the given examples.
(b) Compare the attributes of positive and negative examples.
(c)  Generate a  hypothesis
(d) Test the hypothesis
(e)  State a definition according to the attributes.
Phase II
Testing the attainment of the concept.
Teacher presents additional unlabelled examples such as screw, needle,  fishing rod, forceps, pilers, sickle, bottle opener, balance. Tacher names the concepts as LEVER. Teacher restates the definitions of lever according to the essential attributes.
Pupils are asks to
(a)  Identify unlabelled examples  as positive and negative
(b) Generate new examples of lever.
Phase III
Analysis of the thinking strategies
Teacher  evaluates  the strategies
¨     Describe thoughts
¨     Discusses the role of hypothesis
¨     Discusses type and number of hypothesis.