Saturday, 21 November 2015

B.Ed. Notes-Educational Management - MODULE II- Institutional management


MODULE II- Institutional management

Prepared by
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant Professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
Attur, Thrissur.

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Ø  Institutional Planning – Meaning
         The plans initiated, formulated and implemented by individual educational institution
         It is a part of educational planning.
         Confined to a particular institution
         A plan which is prepared by the institution on the basis of its felt need for its own development and improvement.
–Based on felt need of an institution.
–Considering the available resources.
–Based on the principle optimum utilization of available resources.
Ø  Definition of Institutional Planning
         A programme prepared by an educational institution on the basis of its felt needs and the resources available or likely to be available with a view to improving the school programme and school practices. - Prof. M.B. Buch
Ø  Objectives of Institutional Planning
         Optimum utilisation of existing resources in the school.
         Imparting realism and concreteness to educational planning.
         Improvement of instruction.
         Improvement of equipments and facilities in school.
         Utilise the resources and goodwill of the community to improve and develop the school.
         Provide an opportunity to the local community, school staff and students to join hands in the development of the school.
         For effective organisation of co-curricular and extracurricular programmes to make the school a community centre.
Ø  Scope of Institutional Planning
         Improvement of the school plant.
         Improvement in the administration.
         Improvement of the instruction.
         Organisation of curricular & Extra- curricular activities for pupils.
         Organising community programmes in the school.
Ø  Areas of institutional planning
         Planning of academic activities.
         Planning of co-curricular activities.
         Planning of school infrastructure.
         Planning of administrative matters.
         Planning of teaching-learning materials.
         Planning of discipline.
         Planning of professional growth of teachers.
         Planning school and community relations.
Ø  Characteristics of Institutional Planning
         Need based
         Goal oriented
         Specific plan for an institution
         Co-operative affair of the community, management, school staff and students
         Democratic outlook
         Optimum utilization of resources
         Collaboration with the community
         Future oriented
         Eliminates wastage of resources.
         Helps in school development and improvement.
         It forms the basis of higher level plan.
Ø  Need and Importance of Institutional Planning
         Proper direction to educational planning-bottom to top
         Maximum utilization of resources
         Overall improvement of institution
         Encourages initiative of individual teacher
         Provides team work practice
         Democratic approach to planning
         Reduce wastage
         Planning both curricular and co-curricular activities of an institution.
Ø  Steps in institutional planning
1. Analysis of the existing condition
2. Planning for improvement of existing condition
3. Implementation of the plan
4. Evaluation and feedback.
Ø  Merits of institutional planning
         Helps in achieving educational objectives
         Helps in achieving institutional objectives
         Reduces future uncertainties
         Best possible use of available resources
         Facilitates control
         Encourages creativity
         Effective co-ordination
         Facilitates decision making
         Improves the infrastructure
         Improves standard of institution
         Helps to plan good curricular and co-curricular activities
         Improves relation with members of organization
         The RTE Act (2009) emphasizes the involvement of communities in school governance through SMCs to ensure school quality with equity.
         SMC is formed to Plan, monitor and implement schemes as per the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act of 2009.
         SMC has a very crucial role in actualizing the goals of RTE.
SMC’s shall be constituted in every govt. and aided school and reconstituted every two years.
• SMC includes
Parents from all sections of the society
Elected members of the local authority
Teachers from the school
Local educationists
Children in the school
50% of the members shall be women.
         Monitor the working of the school.
         Prepare and recommend School Development Plan (SDP).
         Monitor the utilization of the grants received from the government or other local sources.
         Supervision/monitoring of finance, management, academic progress, distribution of entitlements & other functions.
Ø School Development Plan (SDP).
      As per Section 22 of RTE Act 2009, SMC want to prepare and share a School Development Plan (S.D.P) with Government.
      Aim is to ensure the quality education in terms of both holistic development and academic achievement.
      The School Development Plan shall be a three year plan comprising three annual sub plans

School Development Plan (SDP) includes the following
         Estimates of class-wise enrolment for each year;
         Details of existing infrastructure
         Master plan for the school
         Teacher requirements
         Physical requirement of the school
         Financial requirement over the three year period
Ø Staff council
      The staff council will consist of the headmaster and representatives of teachers.
      For staff council there will be a staff secretary selected among the teachers.
      It will help the headmaster to deal with the problems faced by the school, such as indiscipline, misbehavior and disobedience.
Ø  Functions of staff council
       To discuss problems of discipline and advise the headmaster on how to solve these.
       To advise the headmaster regarding actions to be taken against pupils for misbehavior.
       To provide information regarding problems relating to working conditions and advise the headmaster in that respect.
       To advise the management on step to be taken for the development of the school.
       To assess the academic work periodically.
       To plan important festivals and celebrations and other co-curricular activities.
       To support the teacher whenever he experiences problems and difficulties.
         Smooth management of the school
         Tackling disciplinary problems
         To support the Head Master
         To inform the management about the requirements
         Planning school activities
Ø  Conduction of staff meeting
       The staff secretary should keep the records of staff meeting.
       The staff secretary should prepare agenda of the staff meeting and it should circulate well in advance.
       The headmaster should provide dynamic leadership to the colleagues.
       He should give complete freedom to express their views.
       Staff meeting should not be too long.
       Unhealthy criticisms should be chocked.
       Staff meeting should not be too frequent; the best appears to be once in a month.
      Democratic attitude should prevail in the meeting
–Distribution of work load of teachers
–Organization of Co-curricular activities
–Celebration of functions
–School time-table
–Day-to-day issues
–Evaluation of curricular and co-curricular activities
Ø Student Council
      Union of democratically elected members of students
      Student’s council can help teachers and school administrators in conducting literary activities, cultural functions, and sports.
      By actively participating in the activities of student’s council, students will get training to be a democratic citizen of the country
Aims / Purposes of student council
         To share Teachers burden
         Cultivate leadership qualities
         Inculcation of Civic sense,
         Development of Democratic values.
         Personality development of students.
         Makes students actively participate in curricular & co-curricular activities.
Ø Time Table
         Time table is the detailed plan showing the schedule of time allotment to various subjects and academic activities.
         Usually timetable is prepared for a week, to be repeated.
         All the work is carried out systematically in tune with the timetable.
         The successful working of the school depends on a suitable timetable.

Ø  Need & importance of Time Table
         Proper Management: Timetable is necessary for the proper management of the affairs of a school.
         Arrangement of leisure works: The timetable will help the headmaster in carrying out the work of the school effectively. Headmaster will be able to arrange extra work for teachers if required.
         Carry work effectively : Through this we can know the work of every class and every teacher
         Ensure orderly work: Timetable ensures orderly work. It assign proper persons for particular classes during appropriate periods in a proper manner.
         Save time & energy : It save the time and energy of teachers and pupils by preventing duplication and overlapping. It ensures right allocation of time for different subjects and activities, by giving proper weightage according to needs
         Distribution of work: It ensures proper distribution of work among teachers.
It makes the work load of teachers balanced and equitable.
         Maintain discipline: It inculcates habit of orderliness, steadiness, regularity and alertness among the teachers and pupils. It helps to maintain discipline and order.
Ø  Types of timetable
      Class timetable
      Teacher’s timetable
      Master timetable
      Teacher’s vacant period time table
      Activities time table (time table for each school activity)
      Room timetable showing the work, the class and the teacher in relation to each room.
      Co-curricular activities time table
      Home work time table.

Ø  Timetable construction
         The first thing is to be decided in the framing of a time table is to determine the number of working days in a week and duration of school hours.
         All these are determined by Department of Education and also prescribe number of periods for each subject.
         Timetable also depends on the type of school. Timetable in a basic school, or in a double shift school will be different from that in ordinary school.
Ø  Principles of Timetable construction
1)      Principle of fatigue
         Each pupil has a warming-up stage , full-working stage and a falling-off stage, every day.
         During first period happens warming-up, the second and third period full-working stage, the fourth period is falling-off period.
         In the same manner, first period of the afternoon is happens warming-up, second period is full working-stage, and third period happens falling-off.
          The best period for fatigue creating subject (subject like Mathematics and English) are the second and third periods in the morning and second period in the afternoon.
         Mother tongue and other subjects do not cause much fatigue, the first and fourth periods in the forenoon and the fourth and third period in the afternoon can set for these.
2)      Principle of variety
         Student will feel bored and dull if they are taught the same subject for a number of periods continuously.
         It is better not to have the same subject for two consecutive periods.
         There should be a alternation of mental and physical tasks also.
3)      Principle of justice
         Work among the members of the staff should be equally distributed.
         Unequal distribution of work may cause frustration.
         Leisure periods should be judiciously distributed.
         No teacher should be asked to teach a subject for which he is not qualified.
4)      Principle of rest and recreation
         Rest and recreation are essential for children. Hence provision should be made for that. Proper intervals are to be ensured in timetable.

5)      Principle of flexibility
         The timetable should be flexible, and not rigid.
         It should be a faithful servant and not a tyrant master.

Ø Total Quality Management (TQM)
         Integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and process.
         Total Quality Management / TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of education and educational processes.
         Total Quality Management (TQM) is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of education and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback.
         TQM requirements may be defined separately for a particular organization or may be in adherence to established standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 series.
         TQM can be applied to any type of organization;
         In order to achieve excellence, six basic concepts of TQM are as follows:
1. Top management should be aware of current situation and needs to be committed     towards TQM implementation.
2. Focus society’s requirements and product/service expectations.
3. Involve employees in understanding the quality aspects and make them          accountable
4. Continuous improvement in the process is required
5. Treat parents as your partners
6. Develop tracking mechanism for processes and improve it as per educational requirements
Ø Scope of TQM
         Create awareness for the need and opportunity for improvement.
         Set explicit goals for improvement,
         To provide appropriate training,
         To create an organizational structure,
         To identify and report progress,
         SWOT analysis,
         Quality audit.
Ø  SWOT analysis
         SWOT analysis (or SWOT Matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. (here Educational institutions)
         SWOT analysis can be carried out for a product, place, industry or person.
         It involves specifying the objective of the educational venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective.
         Setting the objective should be done after the SWOT analysis has been performed. This would allow achievable goals or objectives to be set for the organization.
Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over      others
Weaknesses: are characteristics that place the team at a disadvantage relative to         others
Opportunities: elements that the project could exploit to its advantage
Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or       project
Ø  Quality Audit
         Periodic, independent, and documented examination and verification of activities, records, processes, and other elements of a quality system to determine their conformity with the requirements of a quality standard. (Example ISO 9000).
Any failure in their proper implementation may be published publicly and may lead to a revocation of quality certification.