Thursday, 2 July 2015

Technology & Informatics in Education-Some Model questions and answers


Prepared by
M.Sc, M.Ed, JRF & NET
1)      What is e-content authoring tool?
An e-content authoring tool is a software package which developers use to create and package e-learning content deliverable to end users.
An e-content authoring tool is a software application used to create multimedia content typically for delivery on the World Wide Web. Content-authoring tools may also create content in other file formats so the training can be delivered on a CD (compact disc) or in other formats for various different uses. The category of content-authoring tools includes HTML, Flash, and various types of e-learning authoring tools.
Many programs can be considered authoring tools, including Flash, and PowerPoint. However, only a small group of programs specifically include support for e-learning content standards such as SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model) or AICC (CBT) (Aviation Industry CBT Committee).
 Examples:Articulate Storyline, Composica, Adobe Authorware and Camtasia.
2)      Differentiate CAI & CMI?
1)      CAI means Computer Assisted Instruction
1)      CMI means Computer Managed Instruction
2)      CAI, is the use of a computer to provide instruction.
2) CMI is simply the use of computers in the management of instruction and educational administration.
3)      Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place
3) Computer-managed instruction is an instructional strategy whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, record keeping, progress tracking, and assessment of learner performance
4)      Use of computer mainly in the area of providing instructions and learning experiences.
4) Use of computer in the areas of setting objectives, diagnosing entry behavior, providing learning experiences,  evaluation, monitoring and management.
5)      CAI is concerned with the use of computers to mediate in the flow of information in the learning process. This information is stored in the computer and is made available to the learner rapidly and readily.
5) Can refer either to the use of computers by school staff to organize students’ data and make instructional decisions or to activities, in which the computer evaluates students' test performance, guides them to appropriate instructional resources, and keeps records of their progress.

3)      What are the different types of softwares?
Or What is  Application software and system software?
The term software refers to the set of electronic program instructions or data a computer processor reads in order to perform a task or operation.
There are two main types of software: systems software and application software.

1)      Systems Software

Systems software includes the programs that are dedicated to managing the computer itself, such as the operating system, file management utilities, and disk operating system (DOS).
Example: Windows XP, Windows 7, 8, UBUNTU, LINUX MINT, etc..

2)      Application Software

Application software, or simply applications, enable the user to complete tasks such as creating documents, spreadsheets, databases, and publications, do online search, send email, create graphics, run businesses, and even play games!!!!
Application software is specific to the task it is designed for and can be as simple as a calculator application or as complex as a word processing application.
Example for application softwares: Microsoft Word/Power point, Open office impress, GIMP, AUDACITY, KDENLIVE, TUPI, Adobe photoshop, illustrator, pagemaker, various media players  etc..
4)  How can e-learning address different domains of learning?
Most e-learning courses are developed to build cognitive skills; the cognitive domain is the
most suitable for e-learning. Within the cognitive domain, thinking skills may require more
interactive e-learning activities because those skills are learned better “by doing”.
Learning in the interpersonal domain can also be addressed in e-learning by using specific methods. For
example, interactive role playing with appropriate feedback can be used to change attitudes and behaviours. Hence it can address the affective domain also.
The drill & practice characteristic of e-learning can be used for development of various skills also. Hence it can address the psychomotor domain also.

5) What are the different approaches/patterns of e-learning?
There are two general approaches to e-learning: self-paced and facilitated/instructor-led. Self-paced learners are alone and completely independent, while facilitated and instructor-led e-learning courses provide different levels of support from tutors and instructors and collaboration among learners.

6) What are the components of e-learning?
E-learning content can include:
  • simple learning resources;
  • interactive e-lessons;
  • electronic simulations;
  • E-tutoring, e-coaching, e-mentoring
  • Online learning
  • Virtual classroom
  • Animations, graphics, etc

    7) How can you enhance the quality of e-content ?
The quality of an e-learning course is enhanced by:
  • Learner-centred content: E-learning curricula should be relevant and specific to learners.
  • Granularity/make it in modules: E-learning content should be segmented to facilitate assimilation of new knowledge and to allow flexible scheduling of time for learning.
  • Engaging/motivating content: Instructional methods and techniques should be used creatively to develop an engaging and motivating learning experience.
  • Interactivity: Frequent learner interaction is needed to sustain attention and promote learning.
  • Personalization: Self-paced courses should be customizable to reflect learners’ interests and needs; in instructorled courses, tutors and facilitators should be able to follow the learners’ progress and performance
  • Make it Techno friendly: Able to use in various devices.

8) What are the different stages in developing an e-content?
five stages: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation
1 - Analysis
Analysis is needed in
  • Analyzing the Target audience
  • Determining the course content
  • Characteristics of the learners (e.g. their previous knowledge and skills, )
  • Access to technology.
  • Topic analysis is carried out to identify and classify the course content.
2 - Design
The design stage encompasses the following activities:
>> formulating a set of learning objectives required to achieve the general, high-level course objective;
>> defining the order in which the objectives should be achieved ; and
>> selecting instructional, media, evaluation and delivery strategies.
3 - Development
In this stage, the e-learning content is actually produced. The content can vary considerably, depending on the available resources. The development of multimedia interactive content is comprised of three main steps:
>> content development: writing or collecting all the required knowledge and information;
>> storyboard development: integrating instructional methods (all the pedagogical elements needed to support the learning process) and media elements. This is done by developing the storyboard, a document that describes all the components of the final interactive products, including images, text, interactions, assessment tests; and
>> courseware development: developing media and interactive components, producing the course in different formats for CD-Rom and Web delivery and integrating the content elements into a learning platform that learners can access.
4 - Implementation
At this stage the course is delivered to learners. The courseware is installed on a server and made accessible for learners. In facilitated and instructor-led courses, this stage includes managing and facilitating learners’ activities.
5 - Evaluation
An e-learning project can be evaluated for specific evaluation purposes. We can  evaluate learners’ reactions, the achievement of learning objectives, the transfer of jobrelated knowledge and skills, and the impact of the project on the organization.

9) What are the tools used for e-learning ? OR
What are the technologies used for e-learning ?
E-learning makes use of many technologies - some of which have been developed specifically for it, whilst others conveniently complemented the learning process, for example computer games. Communication technologies are also widely used in e-learning. Starting with the use of email and instant messaging, message forums and social networks, we see a lot of tools that any internet user would use in any case. There are word processing packages and HTML editors can be used effectively.

The most common tools are:
>> e-mail based tools
>> discussion forums
>> wikis and other shared writing/editing tools
>> blogs
>> webcasting
>> chat and instant messaging (IM)
>> polling
>> whiteboard and screen-sharing tools
>> application sharing
>> audio and video conferences
Synchronous tools
Asynchronous tools
>Chat and IM
> Video and audio conference
> Live webcasting
> Application sharing

> E-mail
> Discussion forum
> Wiki
> Blog
> Webcasting

10) How will you evaluate/Validate an e-content?
E-content can be evaluated/validated on the following standards
·         Technologically Friendly so as to be downloaded and used on any computer either independently or in a LAN situation.
·         Learner Friendly for easy navigation.
·         Learner Centric to be useful in self-instructional mode.
·         Teacher Friendly so as to be used in various teaching-learning methods such as classroom lectures, tutoring to a group, lab session etc.
·         Self-evaluation: It should include formative as well as summative evaluation.
·         Interesting, motivating and relevant.
·         Technical validity is to be ensured with the help of computer experts and content validity to be ensured with the help of subject experts.
·         It should be based on psychological principles of learning.
·         Can be validated using different rating scales available.

KompoZer is a complete Webpage Authoring System that combines web file management and easy-to-use WYSIWYG (What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get) web page editing program.
Moodle is a software package for producing Internet-based courses.
Moodle (abbreviation for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) is a free source e-learning software platform.

Software used for Video calling, video/Audio teleconferencing etc.
Sunclock is a software application that delineates the countries experiencing day or night at a given time on a world map using light and shade
K-Star is free, open source Astronomy software. It provides an accurate graphical simulation of the night sky, from any location of the earth, at any date and time.
The display includes up to 100 million stars, 13000 deep sky objects, all 8 planets, the Sun and Moon, and thousand of comets and asteroids.
Software for making presentations.
Free Software for making presentations
GNU Image Manipulation Program is an image retouching and editing tool and free and open-source software.
Audacity is a free digital audio editor and recording application
Kdenlive is a powerful multi-track video editor, including most recent video technologies
Tupi is a design and authoring tool for 2D Animation.

Best wishes!

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