Wednesday, 17 June 2015

Taxonomy of educational objectives - Bloom’s taxonomy

Taxonomy of educational objectives - Bloom’s taxonomy
 Prepared by
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
Attur, Thrissur.
    The overall purpose of process of education is to bring about worth-while changes in the behavior pattern of pupils. Instructional objectives have the directive role to play in this process. For teaching to result worth-while behavior changes, a clear understanding of educational objectives is essential. Since modern evaluation is all objective based, a comprehensive statement of educational objectives in terms of expected pupil-behavior become desirable. More over if the educational policies set forth in statement on education and national objectives are to be implemented, the aims and purpose must be stated in terms of behavior to be expected from student who have indeed achieve them.
Ø  Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
    Taxonomy of educational objectives means classification of educational objectives.
Ø  Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
A committee of colleges, lead by Benjamin Bloom in 1956, identified three domains of educational objectives/activities: 
1)      Cognitive: Knowledge 
2)      Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) 
3)      Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills) 

Cognitive Domain
The cognitive domain is concerned with ‘knowing’ and it includes activities such as remembering and recalling knowledge, thinking, problem solving and creativity.
The cognitive domain involves knowledge development. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities. There are six major categories, which are listed in order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first one must be mastered before the next one can take place. 

Cognitive Domain – Objectives

·   Knowledge
Recall data or information.
Examples: Recalls an equation, recalls Newton’s laws. Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer, Knows the safety rules.
Key Words/Action verbs/Specifications: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.
·   Comprehension
Understand the meaning. Comprehension represents the lowest level of understanding.  It refers to a type of understanding such that the individual knows what is being communicated and can make  use of the material or idea being communicated.
Translation, interpretation, and extrapolation of instructions and problems.
State a problem in one's own words.
Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in oneís own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.
Key Words/Action verbs/Specifications:
Comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives Examples, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.
·         Application
Use a concept in a new situation.
Applies what was learned in the classroom into new situations.
Examples: Use a equation to solve a problem. Apply equations of motion to calculate  the speed, distance, time etc.. 
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.
·         Analysis
Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood.
Analysis of Elements, Analysis of Relationships & Analysis of Organizational principles

Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.
·         Synthesis
Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements.
Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.
Examples: Production of a unique communication, production of a plan, Derivation of relations,  Design a machine to perform a specific task..
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.
·         Evaluation
Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.
Examples: Select the most effective solution. Justify a new project.
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.

Affective Domain
This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: 
The classification of Educational objective in Affective Domain is given by Bloom and Krathwohl (1964).
The educational objectives under this domain emphasis feeling, emotions of an individual.
Affective domain – Objectives (remember R2VOC)
Characterization by a value or value complex
·         Receiving
Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention.
Willing to receive or to attend to certain phenomena or stimuli
Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people.
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses.
·         Responding
Active participation on the part of the learners. 
Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon.  Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation). 
Responding to a particular stimuli.
Willingness to respond.
Satisfaction in response.
Examples:  Participates in class discussions.  Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in order to fully understand them. Know the safety rules and practices them.
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: answers, assists, aids, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.
·         Valuing
The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable. 
            Acceptance of Value.
            Eg. Pupils develop a positive attitude to incorporate non violent behavior to his life.
            Performance for a value.
            Eg. Pupil performs non violent behavior in different situations.
            Eg. Pupil tries to convince others the worth of non violence in modern era.
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: completes, demonstrates, differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.
·         Organization
Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating a unique value system. 
The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. 
Organization of values into a system.
The determination of interrelationship among them.
Examples:  Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Accepts responsibility for ones behavior. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accepts professional ethical standards. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization, family, and self. 
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.
·         Characterization
Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. 
 Internalization of values.
Adopt belief system and philosophy.
Values become part of behavior.
Examples:  Shows self-reliance when working independently. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). Uses an objective approach in problem solving.  Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Values people for what they are, not how they look. 
KeyWords/Actionverbs/Specifications: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies.

Psychomotor Domain
The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. The six major objectives are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: 
Dave (1989) of NCERT has proposed a taxonomy of psychomotor domain as follows.
Psychomotor domain Objectives (remember IMPAN)
·         Imitation
Imitation of an action or performance.
Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low quality.
Example: Copying a work of art.
·         Manipulation
Manipulation of an act. This includes differentiating various movements and selecting the proper one.
Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions and practicing
Example: Creating work on one's own, after taking lessons, or reading about it.
·         Precision
Precision in reproduction in a given act. This includes accuracy, exactness in performance.
Example: Working and reworking something, so it will be “just right.”
·         Articulation
Articulation among different acts. This includes coordination, sequence harmony among the acts.
Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony and internal consistency
Example: Producing a video that involves music, drama, color, sound, etc.
·         Naturalization
Performing an act with the least psychic energy.
Having high level performance become natural, without needing to think much about it.
Examples: Yesudas singing  a melody, Sachin playing cricket, etc. 

Instructional Objective: An instructional objective is a statement that describes what the pupil will do, or be able to do if the instruction has been completed. It is a learning product that teacher hopes will result from the instruction. It is the terminal behavior expected of the pupil at the end of a period/instruction.
Example: The pupil acquires knowledge about force.
The pupil understands the term work and displacement.
Specification/Expected behavioural change/Specific objectives/: The observable measurable behavioural changes are called specific objectives/specification. The statement of an objective can be further clarified by defining it in terms of observable behavioural changes.
Example: The pupil recalls  newtons first law. (Recall  is the action verb)
            : The pupil explains the equation of work. (Explain is the action verb)

Ø Specifications or Specific Outcomes of Learning (SOL)
·         Specifications are measurable and observable change of behavior in pupil
·         SOL are expressed in Operational terms.

Ø How to write Instructional objectives ? (Subject+verb+object)
·         Instructional objectives consist of three components
·         Performer/Subject:  Pupil
·         Behavior expected/verb :  A transitive verb (Action verb)
Eg: Recall, recognize, identifies etc.
·         Related Learning material(object)
Eg. A term, a concept, a part etc.

Eg: The pupil recalls  newtons first law