SABARISH

Tuesday, 26 August 2014

Grading system in Evaluation


Grading system in Evaluation
Prepared by
SABARISH-P
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Lecturer in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
Attur, Thrissur.
ØWhen students' level of performance are classified into a few classificatory units using letter grades, the system of assessment is called grading system.
Ø In grading, classification is made on 5 point, 7 point, 9 point scale etc.
Ø Grading considered to be more scientific way of evaluation as it solves the problems of borderline cases by including all the pupils falling within a wider range with in the same grade.
Ø Identifies the students' performance level within a wide range.
Ø Grading involves the use of set of specialized symbols whose meaning ought to be objectively defined in terms of specific criteria.

Ø In 5 point scale grading system the categories are
Score %
Letter grade
interpretation
75 and above
A
Outstanding
60 – 74
B
Very good
45 – 59
C
Good
30 – 44
D
Average
Below 30
E
Below average

Ø In 9 point scale grading system the categories are
Score %
Letter grade
interpretation
90 – 100
A+
Outstanding
80 – 89
A
Excellent
70 – 79
B+
Very good
60 – 69
B
Good
50 – 59
C+
Above average
40 – 49
C
Average
30 – 39
D+
Marginal
20 – 29
D
Need improvement
Below 20
E
Need improvement

Types of Grading
Direct Grading
Ø Judgment of any given phenomenon (achievement, skills, personality traits etc.) by the evaluator in terms of most appropriate letter grade without assigning the scores.
Ø In examinations, the evaluator will award a particular grade to the answer for each individual questions on the basis of it's quality.
Ø Then the Grade Point Average (GPA) calculated for obtaining the overall grade of the student in a particular subject.

Letter grade
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
Numerical Value of the Grade
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 

Calculation of GPA
Q.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Obtained Grade
F
B
A
G
D
H
E
E
B
F
C
B
E
D
B
Grade Point
4
8
9
3
6
2
5
5
8
4
7
8
5
6
8

GPA =( 4 + 8 + 9 + 3 + 6 + 2 + 5 + 5 + 8 + 4 + 7 + 8 + 5 + 6 + 8)/15
= 5.86 = 6
Hence Overall Grade will be 'D'
Direct Grading-Demerits
Ø Massive and time consuming.
Ø Mistakes can't be ruled out.
Ø Suitable for small groups.
Ø Not feasible for large-scale examinations.

Indirect Grading
Ø Method of awarding grades through marks.
Ø Marks are awarded to the individual questions on the basis of the prescribed marking scheme.
Ø Find out total mark and converted to grade.
Ø This can be done in two ways
1)    Absolute Grading
2)    Relative Grading
  

Absolute Grading
Ø Some fixed ranges of scores are determined in advance for each grade.
Ø The score obtained by a student in a subject is converted into corresponding grade.
Eg.

Score %
Letter grade
Interpretation
90 – 100
A+
Outstanding
80 – 89
A
Excellent
70 – 79
B+
Very good
60 – 69
B
Good
50 – 59
C+
Above average
40 – 49
C
Average
30 – 39
D+
Marginal
20 – 29
D
Need improvement
Below 20
E
Need improvement

    





Relative Grading
Ø The grade range is not fixed in advance.
Ø The fundamental premise of relative grading is that if an evaluation result is plotted on a graph, the graph will be assumes the form of a Normal Probability Curve
Procedure to find out Relative Grading
Ø Group of students are divided into different groups.
Ø Find out number of students in each grade using statistical methods.
Ø Using this number of students in each grade, find out the range of each grade.
Ø Corresponding grades are given to each students who fall in different ranges.