Sunday, 20 December 2015

EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODULE IV- Managing physical and health education practices in school


MODULE IV- Managing physical and health education practices in school

Prepared by
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant Professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
Attur, Thrissur.

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Ø Aims & Objectives or Importance of Physical and health education in schools
(Develop & write according to marks)
·         For all-round development
·         Development of Physical fitness
·         Promote social skills & values
·         Promote health
·         For self discipline
·         Organic development (To develop the organic systems of the body)
·         Neuro-muscular development
·         Emotional development
·         It builds self esteem.
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 Physical education plays a vital role in the students’ development and growth. According to recent medical studies, physical well being of a student is directly related to his or her performance whether in class or in the office.
1.      It’s a link to good health.
    The value of physical fitness can never be overstated. It’s only in physical educational classrooms that students learn the value of taking care of themselves through proper grooming, healthy eating and regular exercise.
2. It’s a preventive measure against disease.
Many doctors today agree that obesity is a serious health risk. Without any form of diet management and control with the numerous processed food students intake everyday compounded by a sedentary lifestyle, a student’s health can easily be at risk to many diseases like chronic heart disease, hypertension and diabetes. Physical education in school is a preventive measure to teach students the value of regular exercise.
3. It’s a program for muscle strength and fitness.
Physical education develops the students’ motor skills and hand-eye coordination. It also develops the upper body muscles through activities like doing push ups as well the lower body muscles through stationary jumping jacks, 3min running and jumping exercises.
4. It promotes academic learning.
Physical health allows students to function even better in classrooms. A good cardiovascular system developed from regular exercise promotes excellent blood and oxygen circulation. This means more nutrients circulate throughout the body which includes the brain. This circulation produces longer attention span during classes allowing longer concentration and absorption.
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5. It builds self esteem.
Students who are active in physical activities like basketball, volleyball, martial arts and running just to name a few are more confident with themselves according to most social school studies. It’s probably because of the self discipline and dedication to excel in a sport that brings out the best in students. In school, the physical education program introduces these sport activities to students allowing them to make choices to which sport areas they want to get involved in.
6. It develops cooperation, teamwork and sportsmanship skill.
Most physical education programs are holistic. The program allows student to interact together to a common goal and that is to win and excel physically. It brings out the competitive sides of students working both body and mind but also promotes sportsmanship.
7. It promotes a physically active lifestyle.
The purpose of physical education is to instill in students, at an early age, the value of self preservation and choosing a lifestyle that is good for both the mind and body.
Ø WHO definition of Health
·         Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Ø Definition of Physical Fitness
·         “The ability to carry out daily tasks (work and Play) with vigour and alertness, without undue fatigue and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies” – (Clarke 1976)
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Ø Definition of Wellness
·         Wellness is an active process of becoming aware of and making choices toward a healthy and fulfilling life.
"...a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." - The World Health Organization
Ø Health Education
·         Health is a state of complete Physical, mental & social well being and not merely the absence of diseases
·         Education for health is health education
Ø 3 Aspects of health education programmers
1. Health instruction: About body parts, Health science, Methods to prevent Diseases.
2. Health services: Locate illness, Provide Medical care.
3. Health supervision: To provide Healthy Environment in schools.
Ø Physical Fitness
·         Physical Fitness : Ability to carry out daily Life Activities without fatigue
Ø Types of Physical fitness
1)      HRPF (Health Related Physical Fitness)
·         Capacity to live a full & efficient life that one is capable of.
2)      SRPF (Skill Related Physical Fitness)
·         Capacity to perform effectively in sports, games & motor skills (components are speed, ability & co-ordination)
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3)      CF (Cosmetic Fitness)
·         Capacity to built beautiful body (without giving more importance to other components of physical fitness)
Ø Components of Physical Fitness
·         Strength
·         Agility (is the ability to change the body's position efficiently)
·         Endurance. (Muscular, Cardio & Respiratory)
·         Flexibility
·         Speed
·         Power
·         Co-ordination
Ø  Activities to develop child’s Fitness/Balance in schools
·         Walking,   Running,  Stretching, Weight training, Various Exercises,Yoga.
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Ø  Benefits of Fitness or Exercise
·         Increased life expectancy. (how long a person or organism may live)
·         Decrease risk of heart attack, stroke & certain types of hypo kinetic diseases.
·         Improved body function
·         Mental freshness
·         Beautiful body structure
·         Decreased body fat
Ø Hypo-kinetic diseases
·         Hypo kinetic diseases are conditions that occur from a sedentary lifestyle.
·         "Hypo" means less and "kinetic" means movement. So Hypo kinetic diseases are caused due to lack of physical activity.
·         Hypo kinetic diseases are conditions that are related to low levels of habitual activity. They are usually brought on by lack of exercise. Examples of these types of diseases are obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, low back pain, dyslipedimia and diabetes.
1)      Obesity
Excess body weight, generally 20% more than the ideal body weight
•Due to the Excessive accumulation of Fat /over eating / Life style
•Lack of appropriate physical activity
•Difficulty to move around
•Increased risk of other diseases like heart attack, stroke, hypertension, etc
2)      Diabetes
•Related with glucose & Insulin
•Manageable but not curable
•Glucose is not absorbed to blood, unabsorbed glucose affect body totally
•Life style, Overeating, Pancreas problem
•Lack of physical Activity /exercise
•Kidney Failure , Blindness, Heart diseases etc
Symptoms of Diabetes
•Excessive thirst
•Frequent urination
•Increased hunger
•Unexplained weight loss
•Change in vision
•Tingling or numbness in hands or feet
•Feeling tired most of the time
•Dry skin
•Non/delayed healing of wounds
3)      Dyslipedimia
•Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. cholesterol, fat) in the blood.
•Consequence of abnormal Lipoprotein metabolism
•Liver disease.
•Cigarette smoking
•Premature heart disease
4)      HyperTension
•Abnormally high blood pressure
•Manageable but not curable.
•High blood pressure, Silent killer.
•Pressure more than 90/140
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•Age, cholesterol, Diabetes.
•Lack of Physical Activity
•Heart Failure, Stroke,
•Kidney failure etc.
5)      Osteoporosis
•Bones become Fragile & Easily breaking.
•Genetic factor, Body size, Lack of appropriate exercise.
•Lack of Calcium & Vitamin D
•Frequent bone fracture.
•Spine become curved.
•affected to Lung functioning.

6)      Coronary Heart Diseases
•Disease of the coronary arteries due to atherosclerosis
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7)      Atherosclerosis
•Fat deposits develop, restricting blood flow through the artery
•Atheroma means fatty deposits.
•Obesity and Overweight
•High Blood Pressure
•Raised Blood Cholesterol
•Family History of Coronary Heart Disease
•Excessive Alcohol Intake
•Heart failure
•Cardiac arrest

Ø  Heart failure signs and symptoms.
Shortness of breath (dyspnea) when you exert yourself or when you lie down.
Fatigue and weakness.
Swelling (edema) in your legs, ankles and feet.
Rapid or irregular heartbeat.
Chest pain
Reduced ability to exercise.
Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm
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Ø  Preventive Measures (For all of these hypo kinetic diseases)
•Change in life style
•Diet control.
•Regular Exercise.
•Rest & Recreation.
•Proper Treatment.

Ø Posture & Postural Defects
•Posture is the correct alignment of body segments.
•Posture is defined as the way you hold your body when you are standing, sitting or lying down, whether characteristic or assumed for a special purpose. Good posture allows your body to function properly, while bad posture can cause pain and spinal irregularities.
•Postural defect is defect in body alignment.
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      Portrays a better, more confident image
      Breathing becomes easier and deeper
      Improves circulation and digestion
      Help your muscles and joints
      Healthy spine
      Makes you look smarter and younger
      Sign of good personality
Effects of bad posture
      Joint Stress
      Growth issues
      Improper digestion
      Increased stress levels
      Intensifies depression

•Congenial –by birth or heredity.
•Acquired –by accident , disease, habit, improper diet, over load, improper exercise, obesity.

Ø Postural Defects
•Bad posture / postural defect decrease the total beauty of the body & makes discomforts in daily life.
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1. Kyphosis-Bending back ward.
2. Lordosis-Bending forward.
3. Scoliosis-Bending sideways.
4. Flat foot- a condition in which the foot has an arch that is lower than usual.

Types of bad posture
1)      KYPHOSIS
      Excessive outward curvature of the spine, causing hunching of the back.
      Kyphosis may be congenital    due to developmental abnormalities;
       May occur in adolescence from asymmetric spine growth or, albeit rarely, from infection.
      Kyphosis often accompanies scoliosis.

      Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
      Scoliosis may be congenital and may require early surgical intervention. In older children, the cause of scoliosis may never be diagnosed.
      Scoliosis is never normal, but mild scoliosis may be harmless. Progressive or increasing scoliosis may require treatment.

3)      LORDOSIS
 Loss of curvature at the lower spine resulting in increased prominence of the buttocks (also known as flat back or swayback)
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Lordosis may be congenital, secondary to hip deformity, occur after trauma or be compensatory (developed) to compensate for excessive kyphosis.

•First aid is the initial care of the injured or sick. It is the care administered by a concerned person as soon as possible after an accident or illness. It is this prompt care and attention that sometimes means the difference between life and death, or between a full or partial recovery.
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 Preserve the victim’s life
 Prevent complications or keep the condition from worsening.
 Promoted recovery.
 Assure the victim by comforting him/her and relieving pain
·         Principles of First Aid
Taking immediate and wise action is the essential principle in first aid.
1.Do first thing first -quick without panic.
2.Proper diagnosis.
3.Proper first aid .
4.Basic life support. (Breathing, compression, stop bleeding).
5.Speedy transport.
6.Earliest medical care.
(Diagnosis, Treatment and transport are the three basic strategies of First Aid)

The main aims and principles of first aid are to:
1) Preserve life – This includes the life of the casualty, bystander and rescuer.
2) Protect the casualty from further harm – Ensure the scene is safe.
3) Provide pain relief – This could include the use of ice packs or simply applying a sling.
4) Prevent the injury or illness from becoming worse – Ensure the treatment you provide does not make the condition worse.
5) Provide reassurance.
6) Promote recovery

Ø  Balanced Diet
•Food or Diet which contains appropriate proportions of
•Vitamins & Minerals
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Ø Nutrition
•Balanced diet intake or adequate food intake
Ø Malnutrition
•The inadequate diet intake, due to lack of food or lack of balanced diet.
Ø Deficiency Diseases
   •Diseases caused due to the deficiency of vitamins & nutrients.
•Night Blindness,

Deficiency diseases 

Disease & key nutrient involved


Foods rich in key nutrient
(vitamin A)
Blindness from chronic eye infections, poor growth, dryness and keratinization of epithelial tissues
Liver, fortified milk, sweet potatoes, spinach, greens, carrots, cantaloupe, apricots
(vitamin D)
Weakened bones, bowed legs, other bone deformities
Fortified milk, fish oils, sun exposure
Nerve degeneration, altered muscle
coordination, cardiovascular problems
Pork, whole and enriched grains, dried beans, sunflower seeds
Diarrhea, skin inflammation, dementia
Mushrooms, bran, tuna, chicken, beef, peanuts, whole and enriched grains
(vitamin C)
Delayed wound healing, internal bleeding, abnormal formation of bones and teeth
Citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli
(iron deficiency)
Decreased work output, reduced growth,
increased health risk in pregnancy
Meat, spinach, seafood, broccoli, peas, bran, whole-grain and enriched breads
Enlarged thyroid gland, poor growth in infancy and childhood, possible mental retardation, cretinism
Iodized salt, saltwater fish

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Ø  Balanced Diet
•A balanced diet needs to contain foods from all the main food groups in the correct proportions to provide the body with optimum nutrition. It should also be made up of the correct number of calories to maintain a healthy weight, and be low in processed foods. •Every person is different and hence the correct diet for health may vary from person to person, however by following a diet that is varied, covers all foods groups and is low in undesirable nutrients such as sodium, saturated fats and sugar, you are well on your way to a healthy body.
•Eating a balanced diet means choosing a wide variety of foods and drinks from all the food groups. The goal is to take in nutrients you need for health at the recommended levels
The essential parts of a balanced diet include:
      Dairy products
§  Foods rich in oil should be used sparingly

Ø  Merits of Yoga
         Yoga brings fitness to mind, body & spirit.
         Helps to keep body young & healthy.
         Creates self discipline.
         Gaining mastery over mind.
         Makes body more flexible and joints Viable.
         Increases blood circulation.
         Reduces body fat.
         Improves self confidence.
         Helps to reduce tension, stress, anxiety & Depression
         Helps to unify body & mind.
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1 Mark
1.Explain any two postural deformity
2.What are the major symptoms of diabetics
2 Marks
1.What are nutritional needs (Oct 2009)
2.Explain any two postural deformity (Aug 2008) (Aug 2007)
3.Define physical fitness (Aug 2008)
4.What are the major symptoms of diabetes (Aug 2008)
5.Mention any two symptoms of cardiac failure (Aug 2008)
6.Mention any two benefits of weight training (Aug 2007)
7.Distinguish LDL & HDL cholesterol (Aug 2007)
8.Distinguish between physical education & health education (May 2006)
9.What are the educational values of conducting sports & games in school (Mar 2005)
10.What are the importance of sports & games in schools (Mar 2001)
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4 Marks
1.Mention different aims & objectives of physical education (Oct 2009)
2.Explain hyper tension & its causes (Aug 2008)
3.Define physical fitness. Explain the major components involved in it (Aug 2008)
4.What do you mean by fracture? What are the major types &their symptoms ?
(Aug 2007)
5.Explain diabetes with its causes & symptoms (Aug 2007)
6. Define physical fitness. Explain the major components involved in it
10 Marks
1.Explain the aims and objectives of physical education. (May 2006)