SABARISH

Monday, 7 March 2016

EPC 1: READING AND REFLECTING ON TEXTS

EPC 1: READING AND REFLECTING ON TEXTS
A note on EPC 1: Reading and reflecting on texts
(New practical introduced for B.Ed. Course)

Prepared by
SABARISH-P
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education,
Attur, Thrissur.
pklsabarish@gmail.com
Objectives:-
Upon completion of this course, the student teacher will:
1)      Improve his/her proficiency in ‘reading’, ‘writing’, ‘thinking’, and ‘communicating’ in the language of instruction.
2)      Develop an interest in reading
3)      Improve his/her ability to understand instruction
This course will serve as a foundation to enable B.Ed. students to read and respond to a variety of texts in different ways and also learn to think together, depending on the text and the purposes of reading. Responses may be personal or creative or critical or all of these together. Students will also develop metacognitive awareness to become conscious of their own thinking processes as they get familiar with diverse texts. In other words, this course will enable student-teachers to enhance their capacities as readers and writers by becoming participants in the process of reading.
The aim is to engage with the readings interactively- individually and in small groups. This involves framing questions to think about, while preparing to read something, reading a text, and reflexively placing what one has read in the context of both the texts and one’s own experiences.
This course offers opportunities to read a wide variety of texts, including empirical, conceptual, and historical work, policy documents, studies about schools, teaching, learning, and about different people’s experiences of all of these. The course will also include narrative texts, expository texts from diverse sources, including autobiographical narratives, field notes, ethnographies, etc. to address different types of reading skills and strategies.
For expository texts, they will learn to make predictions, check their predictions, answer questions and then summarize or retell what they’ve read .Students will analyze various text structures to see how these contribute to the comprehension of a text. These readings will also provide the context for writing. Combining reading and writing leads to the development of critical skills. Student-teachers will get opportunities to write with a sense of purpose and audience, through tasks such as, responding to a text with one’s own opinions or writing within the context of others’ ideas.
This is what NCTE and Universities saying about the course (Practical). Now let us see what to do in each step to actualize the objectives. I am here by suggesting a framework for what to do in each step.
1) Engaging with narrative and descriptive accounts ( 6 marks )
The selected texts could include stories or chapters from fiction, dramatic incidents, vivid descriptive accounts, or even well produced comic strip stories.
Suggested Activities:
1)      Reading for comprehending and visualizing the account (individual + group reading and discussion/explanation)
2)      Re-telling the account - in one’s own words/from different points of view (taking turns in a smaller group)
3)      Narrating/describing a related account from one’s life experience (in front of a smaller group)
4)      Discussion of characters and situations – sharing interpretations and points of view (in a smaller group)
5)      Writing based on the text – eg. Summary of a scene, extrapolation of story, converting a situation into a dialogue etc. (individual task)

Expected Output (Product)
1)      A record/report encompassing all the procedures/activities followed
2)      Reflective writing based on the text. eg. Summary of a scene, extrapolation of story, converting a situation into a dialogue etc. (individual task)

I suggest In-depth Reading of any of the following texts for student teachers. These books are available freely to read in most of digital libraries and INFLIBNETS.
1)      Delpit, Lisa D. (1988). The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People Children. Harvard Educational Review 58(3), 280-298.
2)      Donovan, M. S. And Bransford, J. D. (Ed.) (2005). How students learn. Washington DC: The National Academies Press, Chapter 1: Introduction 1-26, Chapter 13: Pulling Threads 569-590.
3)      Gilligan, C. (1977). In a Different Voice: Women’s Conception of Self and Morality. Harvard Educational Review, 47 (4), 481-517
4)      llich, I. (1970). Deschooling Society, London, UK: Marion Boyars.
5)      Vasanta, D. (2004). Childhood, Work and Schooling: Some Reflections Contemporary Education Dialogue, Vol. 2(1), 5-29.
6)      Mukunda, K. V. (2009). What Did You Ask in School Today? A Handbook on Child Learning. Noida: Harper Collins. Chapter 4: Child Development, 79-96.
7)      Wood, D. (2000). Narrating Professional Development: Teacher s stories as texts for improving practice. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 31(4), 426-448.
More over student teachers can read other familiar books like
1)      Autobiographies of national leaders (eg: Gandhiji)
2)      The Alchemist- Novel by Paulo Coelho
3)      Playing It My Way: Autobiography  by Sachin Tendulkar
4)      Totto-chan, the Little Girl at the Window by Tetsuko Kuroyanagi  & Chihiro Iwasaki (Illustrator)
5)      “Wings Of Fire” and other familiar Books by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
6)      “You can win” by Shiv khera
7)      Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire
Other Sample Recommended Headings for Reading Materials are
Ethnographies –
Meenakshi Thapan’s ‘Life at school: an ethnographic study’ & ‘Ethnographies of schooling
in contemporary india’ & other research studies

Extracts-
‘Teacher Man’ by Frank McCourt & extracts from ‘The Prophet’ by Kahlil Gibran
Macaulay’s Minutes
Extracts from Rousseau’s ‘Emile’, Dewey’s writings, Plato’s Dialogues, books of
Krishnamurthi, Aurobindo, Tagore, Vivekananda, Gandhi and like.

Books-
Letter to a Teacher
Deschooling Society
Silenced Dialogue
Para Teachers

Plays-

Autobiographies/biographies-

Journals –

Documentaries-

Fiction-

·         All of these books are available in most of the libraries. Also e books are available in google books, Amazon Kindle etc for purchase.

·         Also student teachers can select and read books on  their regional Languages (Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada)

·         Based on the discussions held on the reading of the above texts students in the practical time the student-teachers shall maintain a detailed account of their reflection on the readings in the light of their own experiences in the form a diary. The Internal Assessment shall be on the extent of participation in an reading exercise in the class individually and in a Group and reflection on the same simultaneously.

·         Some of the Audio Visual Resources that can be utilized by Teacher Educators and Student Teachers  in this session are

1)      A New Education for a New India ( CD ROM) (By Gnostic Centre/NCTE)
2)      Had-Anhad:  Journeys  with  Ram  and  Kabir  by Shabnam Virmani
3)      Teachers  Journey:  An observational film on teaching methodologies of a
primary school teacher in a single-teacher school in MP, India. Director-
Deepak Verma, Azim Premji Foundation. For copies contact madhumita@azimpremjifoundation.org
4)      Where  Knowledge  is  Free:  A documentary film about children branded by
Caste and excluded from education. Director Binitesh Baruri. Available at
Indian Institute of Dalit Studies, Q-3, Green Park Ext., New Delhi-16, Ph. 91-


2) Engaging with popular subject-based expository writing (6 marks )

The selected texts could include articles, biographical writing, or extracts from popular nonfiction writing, with themes that are drawn from the subject areas of the student teachers (various sciences, mathematics, history, geography, literature/language pieces)

For this unit, the student teachers should work in groups divided according to their subjects, within which different texts could be read by different pairs of student teachers.

Suggested Activities:

1)      Reading to extract overall meaning, information, subject knowledge (guided reading in pairs and simple note making)
2)      Identifying major concepts and ideas involved and making notes on these in some schematic form - flow diagram, tree diagram, mind map etc. (guided working in pairs)
3)      Explaining the gist of the text/topic to others (in the larger subject group)
4)      Attending to writing style, subject-specific vocabulary and perspectiveor reference framein which different topics are presented this will vary across subjects and texts, and requires some interpretative skills for placingthe context of each text (group discussion and sharing)
5)      Writing a review or a summary of the text, with comments and opinions (individual task)


Expected Output (Product)
3)      A record/report encompassing all the procedures/activities followed
4)      A review or a summary of the text, with comments and opinions (individual task)

3) Engaging with journalistic writing (6 marks)

The selected texts would include newspaper or magazine articles on topics of contemporary interest. Student teachers can be grouped randomly for this unit.

Suggested Activities:
1)      Using reading strategies such as scanning, skimming and reading for extracting information – as appropriate for initial reading of articles (guided individual task)
2)      Analysis of structure of the article, identifying sub-headings, key words, sequencing of ideas, use of concrete details, illustrations and/or statistical representations etc. (guided working in pairs)
3)      Critical reading for attending to ‘framing’ of the article, point(s) of view presented, possible biases or slants (small group discussion)
4)      Researching and writing articles on topics of local interest (working to produce a local interest magazine)

What to do?
Ø  Working out in journalistic writing-Assign to collect particular journalistic items- letter to the Editor, General Article, thematic article, feature article, Students corner etc.
Ø  Find out the attributes of each item (Group work)
Ø  Skill acquisition in report writing- seeing all the details in an event- disseminating them- judging them-relating them-and realizing their significance.
Ø  Publish a journal of their own with all the properties and varieties like-Unexpected events, like fires, accidents, or crimes; Expected events, like meetings, plans, movements, or legislation; Expressions of opinion by prominent men or women, as given in speeches or interviews.- ingenious Reports on flood, draught, accident, strikes etc.
Ø  Each member of the group has to work to get published.
Ø  Prepare a collection of the items.

Expected Output (Product)
1)      An article on topic of local interest written after sufficient research (individual task)
2)      A magazine including all of these articles (1 magazine)

4) Engaging with subject-related reference books (6 marks)

The student teachers should work in groups divided according to their subjects. Within these groups, pairs of student teachers would make a choice of a specific topic in their subject area which they could research from a set of available reference books. The focus of this unit is as much the learning of effective processes of reference research and its presentation, as the actual reading of the reference books themselves.

Sequence of activities: Selecting the topic for research and articulating some guiding questions
Searching and locating relevant reference books (could be from a school library or the Institute library) Scanning, skimming and extracting relevant information from the books by making notes Collating notes and organizing information under various sub-headings, Planning a presentation with display and oral components Making presentations to whole subject group, fielding questions.

Expected Output (Product)
1)      A Presentation (Preferably by using power point) in front of peers.
This can be done Option wise. However the presentation should be to the whole general class.

5) Engaging with educational writing (6 marks)

Selected texts here could be drawn from the wide range of popular educational writing in the form of well-written essays, extracts or chapters from authors who deal with themes from education, schooling, teaching or learning. The writings selected should present a definite point of view or argument about some aspect of the above themes. Student teachers can be grouped randomly for this unit.

Suggested activities:
1)      Reading for discerning the theme(s) and argument of the essay (guided reading individually or in pairs)
2)      Analyzing the structure of the argument: identifying main ideas, understanding topic sentences of paragraphs, supporting ideas and examples, terms used as connectors and transitions (guided small group discussion)
3)      Discussion of the theme, sharing responses and points of view (small group discussion)
4)      Writing a response paper (individually or in pairs)
5)      Presentations of selected papers, questions and answers (large group)


Expected Output (Product)
1)      A response paper (individually or in pairs)
2)      Presentations of selected papers with questions and answers session ( Can be done in front of large group/General class)

Total Output (Product) expected for this EPC
1)      A file including all the above mentioned outputs of each unit. (Individual file).
 (The file is to be maintained in college/along with students till the end of course.)


Guidelines for this EPC

The course shall be conducted as per the guidelines given in the syllabus under the leadership of Language faculty members and corresponding optional teachers of the college. Ensure that the students are thorough about the paper “Language Across the Curriculum”. (Both Theory and practical aspects of that paper)
Students shall be directed to submit reading reflections after completing each reading assignment. These reflections not only encourage students to read more regularly, they also promote content mastery and foster student development of monitoring, self-evaluation, and reflection skills. Though Teacher Education Institutions have the freedom to select appropriate and relevant books for reading/writing/speaking activities, the activities shall offer opportunities to read a wide variety of texts, including empirical, conceptual, and historical work, policy documents, studies about schools, teaching, learning, and about different people’s experiences of all of these. The course will also include narrative texts, expository texts from diverse sources, including autobiographical narratives, field notes, ethnographies, etc. to address different types of reading skills and strategies.

Evaluation

Calicut University has proposed internal evaluation for this EPC. Assessment will be done internally by the teacher educators concerned on the basis of the criteria fixed for the purpose. For assessing student performance, Criteria / Performa based on rubrics have to be developed for each unit by the Teacher Educators to make assessment objective. Internal evaluation is proposed to be conducted in the following criteria

1)      Engaging with narrative and descriptive accounts ( 6 marks )
2)      Engaging with popular subject-based expository writing (6 marks )
3)      Engaging with journalistic writing (6 marks)
4)      Engaging with subject-related reference books (6 marks)
5)      Engaging with educational writing (6 marks)

Total: 30 Marks. (Internal)

However In order to classify colleges as EXCELLENT / HIGH / AVERAGE / BELOW AVERAGE / POOR standards the Chairman of the External Board of Examiners shall examine the EPC by viva voce of the selected students. At that time the selected students have to explain the procedure followed for conducting this EPC to the board chairman. He will not however see or manipulate/interprets the internal marks/procedure already given by the college for this EPC.


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APPENDIX I


References that can be used by Teacher Educators and Student teachers for this EPC

Reflective Reading


/



􀀀 http://www.slideshare.net/MOKOGEONG/a-reflective-teaching- in-the-use-of-context in- reading-texts


􀀀 http://literacyonline.tki.org.nz/Literacy-Online/Teacher- needs/Reviewedresources/
Reading/Comprehension/ELP-years-5- 8/Reflecting-on-recrafting-andpresenting-text

􀀀 http://oer.educ.cam.ac.uk/wiki/OER4Schools/Introduction_to_whole_class_dialogue_and
_effective_questioning_ADE_Sample

􀀀 http://www.academia.edu/3101129/Reflective_reading_Is_meaning_making_constructivi
sm_Is_constructivism_meaning_making



Collaborative Reader


􀀀 https://sethkorn.wikispaces.com/Communicative+Reading+%26+S torytelling( interactive reader)



Reflective Writing


􀀀 http://www.brad.ac.uk/academicskills/ media/learnerdevelopmentunit/documents/workshopresources/confidenceinreflectio n/Reflective-Writing-for-Assignments---Workshop-Booklet.pdf





Reflective Journal Rubric


􀀀 http://edtech.boisestate.edu/connectionsacademy/rubrics/reflection. htm



􀀀 Klein, S., & U.W. Stout, Chandler, W., U.W. Whitewater (2006). Reflection for
Preservice and Inservice Art Teachers E-portfolio, from
.
􀀀 Short, K., Harste, J., & Burke, C. (1996). Creating classrooms for authors and inquirers.
2nd. ed. Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann.

􀀀 Pensavalle, M., Tyerman, J., Delgadillo, L., Miyake, J., Soong, A, (2006). AACTE 2006
Proposal: How Reflection Impacts Instructional Change. AACTE 2006 Proposal,



APPENDIX II

Certain activities that can be used for each terms mentioned in syllabus

1)      To become familiar about various texts (Types of texts related to education –empirical, conceptual, historical, policy documents, narrative texts, expository texts, ethnographies)

Activities:
1. Setting up a Reading Community Club
a) Make a list of reading books of diverse texts and classify them under headings
b) Collect books from diverse contexts and set up a small library
c) Arrange according to themes, genre, regional, folks and educational type
d) Conduct interactive group reading session ( small groups)
e) Create conducive reading space and time

2)      Reading for Comprehension Text

 Reading strategies-Previewing, Infer and Predicting, Skimming, Scanning and Paraphrasing.

Activities:

Comprehending Reading Skills

a) Take up a reading text and follow the Comprehension steps (Better to Follow Davis’s nine potential component skills of comprehension)
b) Reading for comprehending and visualizing the account (individual + group reading and discussion/explanation)
c) Re-telling the account - in one’s own words/from different points of view (taking turns in a smaller group)
d) Narrating/describing a related account smaller group)
e) Discussion of characters and situations –sharing interpretations and points of view (in a smaller group)


3)      Metacognitive skills for Reading
Previews the text and makes predictions, makes connections to personal experience or other texts, Asks clarifying questions, identifies difficult sentences or passages, restates in her own words, Reacts to the text.

Reflect on Text Structure, language, genre, context, socio-cultural diversity

Reflection in Reading –Stages of Reflection in reading tasks- Pre-reading, while reading and post reading

Activities:

Reflect on the texts:
a) Read a book and identify the text structure, language, genre, context, socio-cultural diversity
b) Reflect on the text with the various steps, at different stages like reading, pre-reading and post -reading
c) Analysis of structure of the article, identifying sub-headings, key words, sequencing of ideas, use of concrete details, illustrations and/or statistical representations (guided working in pairs)
d) Critical reading for attending to ‘fra presented, possible biases or slants (small group discussion)
e) Researching and writing articles on topics of local interest (working to produce a local interest magazine)
f) Reading to extract overall meaning, information, subject knowledge (guided reading in pairs and simple note making)
g) Identifying major concepts and ideas involved and making notes on these in some schematic form - flow diagram, tree diagram, mind map, graphic organisers, chapter map, concept map of the read text.
h) Maintain reading log and take notes
i) Maintain a rubric for reflection in reading

4) Communicative Reader –Interactive Reading ( individual and group)

Activities:
a) Read aloud in the group taking turns
b) Talk about what you read
c) Explain the gist of the text/topic to others (in the larger subject group)
d) Interpret and ‘placing’ the context sharing)
e) Discussion of the theme, sharing responses and points of view (small group discussion)
f) Connect the texts to the subjects, methods in the B.Ed. curriculum

5) Expressive Reflections

Activities:
1)    Explore different reflecting journal writings, developing a common reflective journal
2)    Write based on the text –e.g. Summary of a scene, extrapolation of story, converting a situation into a dialogue etc. (individual task)
3)    Write a review or a summary of the text, with comments and opinions (individual task)
4)    Write from reader’s perspective, gettin writer, developing a new angle to the text
5)    Presentations of selected papers, questions and answers (large group).

6) Reading beyond Text
1. Making Connections with the text- Text with Self, Text with Text and Text with
World
2. Reading for Change –
Multicultural Perspective (regional, folk literature and the like)
Inclusive Perspective (gender, class, caste, differently abled and the like)
Educational Perspectives ( Policies, documents, journals)

Activities:

􀀀 Write in journal about all the three types of connections with the text
􀀀 Read texts from diverse areas and fields
􀀀 Group discussion on texts from different cultures, marginalised sections
􀀀 Attend seminars, paper readings, workshop on reading skills
􀀀 Hold public reading events by inviting stakeholders to the event
􀀀 Attend release of new books, listening to the wri book festivals
􀀀 Conduct debates/discussions on educational policies and documents on them.
􀀀 Convert text into a mono-act, play or musical drama
􀀀 Maintain reflective journal and rubric when writing about the reflections of the text.
􀀀 Publish Critical essays and creative essays on reflected texts in college newsletter
and/or magazine


Suggested tasks and Assignments
􀀀 Home reading assignments, maintaining reading log
􀀀 Discussions on interpretation of the texts
􀀀 Be the Text, Experience the Text: Converting text to a dialogue, story, play and mono-act.
􀀀 Analyzing texts and text structures and connecting to the curriculum
􀀀 Writing an exploratory essay on a text and presenting in the class
􀀀 Writing a critical reflection from 2 diverse texts.

Note - face to face and if possible online discussions through synchronous or asynchronous modes, Students should have an opportunity to read and reflect both individually as well as in groups

Suggestions
1. Workshops on reflective thinking and journaling for student teachers and teacher educators for shared understanding
2. Develop a booklet of activities for reading and reflecting on texts.
3. Develop a format for reflective reading journal.


Reading Skills
 Creating environment for reading – reading clubs, class libraries
 Reading aloud and silent reading
 Scaffolding: concept and activities
 Reading different texts types like stories, poems, riddles, jokes, and instructions for games

Reading with comprehension
 Reading for global and local comprehension
 Inferences, analysis and extrapolation
 Reading strategies including word-attack strategies
 Discourse analysis
 Using reading as a tool for reference skills i.e. use of dictionary, encyclopaedia and internet
 Using ideas of critical literacy to analyse chapters from textbooks .
 Acquisition of Reading Skills

Types of text
 Narrative text
 Expository
 Autobiographical Narratives
 Field Notes
 Ethnographies
 Addressing different types of skills and strategies

Mode of Transaction
• Participating in tasks and activities to improve proficiency in the receptive and productive skills of English.
• Text analysis of school textbooks to improve skills in critical literacy.
• Reflecting on ones own learning to make connections with pedagogy.

Essential Readings
1. Lightbown, P. M & Spada, N. (1999). How Languages are Learned Oxford: Oxford University Press
2. Maley, A. & Duff, A. (1991). Drama techniques in language learning: A resource book of communication activities for language teachers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. Morgan, J. & Rinvolucri, M. (1983). Once upon a time: Using stories in the language classroom. Cambridge:. Cambridge University Press.
4. Wright, A. (1989). Pictures for Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Advanced Readings
1. Parrot M. (1993). Tasks for language teachers Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
2. Richards, J. & Lockhart, C. (1994). Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
3. Slatterly, M. & Willis, J. (2001). English for primary teachers: A handbook of activities & classroom language. Oxford: Oxford University Press


Reference

1. Baker, L., and Brown, A.L., 1984, Metacognitive skills and reading: in Pearson, P.D., Barr, R., Kamil, J.L.,and Rosenthal, P. (editors), Handbook of Reading Research, Longman Press, NY.
2. Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., and Cocking, A.R. (editors), 2000, How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 346 p.
3. Gourgey, A.F., 1999, Teaching reading from a Metacognitive perspective: Theory and classroom experiences: Journal of College Reading and Learning, v. 30, p. 85-93.
4. Zimmerman, B., 2002, Becoming a self-regulated learner: An Overview: Theory into Practice, v. 41, no.2, p. 64-70.

APPENDIX III
General Activities that can be done

1. Book review, Appreciation of Poetry
2. Dictation
3. Reading of autobiography and try to written own autobiography (Autobiography of Gandhi and Narmad)
4. Picture story writing and give suitable title
5. Discussion, debate based on reading of books
6. Reading and criticism editorial articles of newspaper.
7. Various types of report writing
8. Reading of “thinking magazines” available in the library.
9. Planning special activities like quiz, extrapolation etc
10. Diagnostic & Remedial work for Reading and Writing Skill.
11. Tests of reading effectiveness
12. Group discussion on the books that are being read.
13.Divide the class in small group and provide different kinds of texts and instruct them to read and reflect according to the nature of text
14. Divide the group and provide one text and suggest students to make different interpretations
15. Design vocabulary games to enhance your vocabulary
16. Read the text and provide a five words summary to each paragraph
17. Reading and comprehension exercises
18. Skim through the text and give suitable title to the text

19. Complete given text in stipulated time and summarize it in few (7/8)lines with a suitable title.