EDU. 106.
EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
MODULE III Managing evaluation in school
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Prepared by
SABARISHP
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant Professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
Attur, Thrissur.
Ø MeasurementMeaning
•
Measurement
is the process by which we ascertain the quantity of a thing
•
It is
the assignment of a numerical index to the thing we assess
•
To
measure means to determine the magnitude of something in terms of suitable
unit.
•
It is an
act or process that involves the assessment of a numerical index to whatever is
being assessed.
Ø
Measurement – Definition
•
“Measurement is the process of assigning
symbols to dimensions of phenomena in order to characterize the status of a
phenomena as precisely as possible”  M.
Brad field
Ø
EvaluationMeaning
•
Evaluation
is the process by which we judge the value or quality of something.
•
It is
the process of determining the extent to which an educational objective
attained.
•
It is
the systematic process of determining to what extent the educational objectives
are being realized
Ø
Evaluation  Definition
•
“Evaluation
is the assignment of symbols to phenomenon in order to characterize the worth
or value of a phenomenon, usually with reference to some social, cultural or
scientific standards” James . M. Brad
field
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Ø
Distinction between Measurement and
Evaluation
.
Measurement

Evaluation

Quantitative

Quantitative + Qualitative

It measure ‘how much’ achieved

It measure ‘how good’ achieved

Not depend upon the purpose

Always depend upon the purpose

Describes a situation

Judges a situation

Not continuous

Continuous

Objective & Impersonal

Subjective & Personal

Scope is limited

Scope is unlimited

Ø Purpose/Functions
of Evaluation
•Assessment
•Placement
•Certification
•Diagnosis
•Prognosis
•Guidance
•To provide
information for grading, reporting to parents and promoting students
•To evaluate the effectiveness of a single teaching method or to apprise
the relative worth of several methods.
•To motivate the
students
•To select the
students
•To evaluate the
entire educational institution and to show how several of its aspects could be improved.
•To collect
information for effective educational vocational counseling.
Ø
TYPES OF EVALUATION
1. Formative Evaluation
2. Summative Evaluation
1) Formative
Evaluation
•
Formative evaluation is the process by
which the achievement of the pupils is judged at every stages of the
teachinglearning process.
•
It involves immediate feedback.
•
Formative Evaluation will motivate the
pupil for better performance.
•
Formative Evaluation helps the teacher in
diagnosing the difficulties of pupils and in modifying teaching strategies.
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2) Summative
Evaluation
•
Summative evaluation is one administrated
to pupil at the end of the lesson or unit of learning.
•
Helps the teachers and pupils to know how
far they have succeeded in realizing the predetermined educational objectives.
•
Summative evaluation includes
classification, gradation and certification of learners in terms of their total
attainment.
•
Summative evaluation helps in organizing
the total system of education more effectively.
•
Summative evaluation may be conducted at
the end of a term and cover number of learning units.
•
Annual examination also may be said to be
summative in nature.
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Ø
Distinction/Difference between Formative
and Summative Evaluation
Formative Evaluation

Summative Evaluation

Conducting during the process of instruction

Conducting at the end of a lesson or chapter

Aim to evaluate the learning process

Aim to evaluate the final output of learning

Take place continuously in the course of
instruction

Usually Takes place in regular intervals ie, weekly,monthly
or yearly

Implementing through teacher observation, oral
questioning etc

Purpose is placement, certification etc.
Implementing through tests, Exams etc

Ø
TOOLS & TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION
TOOLS & TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION
TOOLS

TECHNIQUES

1.Checklist

1.Self Reporting

2.Rating Scale

2.Testing

3.Questionnaire

3.Observation

4.Inventory

4.Interview

5.Schedule

5.Case Study

6.Anecdotal Record

6.Sociometry

7.Cumulative Record

7.Projective Techniques

8.Tests

Ø
TOOLS OF EVALUATION
1. Checklist
A checklist is a list of items for consideration. They can be
in the form of questions or actions to be carried out. They can have a scoring
system or they can collect comments. Checklists can speed up the collection of
information by using tickboxes and rating scales. They need to be carefully
designed to make sure that when they are completed, the results are reliable
and true.
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2. Rating Scale
• Used to classify opinions and judgment
regarding situation, object etc
• Rating scale refer to a scale with a set
of points which describes varying degree of the dimension of an attribute being
observed
3. Questionnaire
•It is a device
in the form of questions or statements
•Used for
collecting factual data
•It is a
systematic compilation of questions that are submitted to the person about
which information is desired.
4. Anecdotal Record
•It’s a record
of informal teacher observations regarding the pupil
•It’s a record
of factual descriptions of significant event in the pupil’s life
•An event in the
anecdotal record is known as ‘Anec dot’
5. Cumulative Record
•It’s a record
of the complete history of the pupil
•It’s recorded
cumulatively from period to period
•It gives
information about physical, intellectual, social, scholastic, personality etc.
6. Tests
•Most popular
tool for collecting data for evaluation
•Classified into
three
1)
Oral tests
2)
Written tests
3)
Performance test.
Ø
Types of tests
1. Norm Referenced Tests
2. Criterion Referenced Tests
3. Teacher Made Tests
4. Standardised Tests
Ø
Achievement Test Construction
Steps
1.
Planning
2.
Design
3.
Preparation of Blue print
4.
Construction of test items
5.
Preparation of the Scoring Key & Marking Scheme
6.
Question wise analysis
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Ø
Diagnostic Tests
•
It’s a test to know the difficulties, problems,
inadequacies and gaps of learning of students
Ø
Remedial Teaching
•
Providing additional learning experiences that might
help the child in reducing the difficulties
Ø
Construction of Diagnostic Tests
Steps
1.
Identification of problem area
2.
Content analysis
3.
Listing learning points
4.
Writing items
5.
Arranging the items
Ø Qualities of a good Test/Tool
1. Comprehensiveness
2. Objectivity
3. Objective basedness
4. Validity
5. Reliability
6. Practicability
7. Comparability
8. Discriminating power
9. Utility
1. Comprehensiveness
•Covering all the points expected to be learnt by the pupils
•Determine the relative weightage to all the sessions and construct
questions according to that scheme
2. Objectivity
•Free from personal bias in interpreting and scoring its responses
•Means reducing subjectivity
3. Objective Basedness
•
The test should be based on predetermined objectives.
•
The test setter should have definite idea about the objective behind each item.
4.
Validity
•A test is valid, when it measure what it intends to measure
For Example
•If a test is designed to measure the linguistic ability of students, it
should measure that ability
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•If the result of measurement is something else, the test is not valid
5.
Reliability
•It’s the degree of consistency and accuracy
• A test may be reliable but need
not be valid. This is because it may yield consistent scores, but these
scores need not be representing what exactly we want to measure.
• A test with high validity has to
be reliable also. (the scores will be consistent in both cases)
• Valid test is also a reliable test, but a reliable test may not be a
valid one.
Ø Types of Validity (Not
mentioned in syllabus)
•Face
Validity
Face validity is the extent to which a test is
subjectively viewed as covering the concept it purports to measure. It refers
to the transparency or relevance of a test as it appears to test participants.
•Content
Validity
If the items in the test constitute a
representative sample of the total course content to be tested, the test can
be said to have content validity
•Construct
Validity
Construct validity involves explaining the test
scores psychologically. A test is interpreted in terms of numerous research
findings.
•Congruent
validity
The validity of a test determined by its
correlation with existing tests designed to measure the same construct.
•Criterion
Related Validity
Criterion validity is the extent to which a
measure is related to an outcome. Criterion validity is often divided into concurrent
and predictive validity. Concurrent validity refers to a
comparison between the measure in question and an outcome assessed at the
same time. Predictive validity compares the measure in question with
an outcome assessed at a later time.
•Factorial
Validity
Factorial validity is defined as the degree to
which covariance among judged traits resembles the actual or true.
Ø Different
methods for determining Reliability (Not
mentioned in syllabus)
• Testretest method
– A test is administrated to the same group with short interval.
The scores are tabulated and correlation is calculated. The higher the
correlation, the more the reliability.
• Splithalf method
– The scores of the odd and even items are taken and the
correlation between the two sets of scores determined.
• Parallel form method
– Reliability is determined using two equivalent forms of the
same test content.
– These prepared tests are administrated to the same group one
after the other. The test forms should be identical with respect to the
number of items, content, difficult level etc. Determining the correlation
between the two sets of scores obtained by the group in the two tests. If
higher the correlation, the more the reliability.

6.
Discriminating
Power
• Discriminating power of the test
is its power to discriminate between the upper and lower groups who took the
test.
• The test should contain different
difficulty level of questions.
7.
Practicability
• Practicability of the test
depends up on...
• Administrative ease
• Scoring ease
• Interpretative ease
• Economy
8.
Comparability
• A test possesses comparability
when scores resulting from its use can be interpreted in terms of a common base
that has natural or accepted meanings
9.
Utility
• A test has utility if it provides
the test condition that would facilitate realization of the purpose for which
it is mean.
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Ø TECHNIQUES
OF EVALUATION
1. Self Reporting
2. Testing
3. Observation
4. Interview
5. Case Study
6. Sociometry
7. Projective Techniques
1. Self Reporting
•React to items concerning his own behaviour or characteristics
•Used for measuring the traits like interest, adjustment, attitude etc
•Obtained through a check list, questionnaire, rating scale etc
2. Testing
•Commonly used technique of evaluation
•Mainly
focused on cognitive traits
• Testing is a evaluation technique
by which we can measure the characteristics such as knowledge, skill,
intelligence, aptitude etc. of an individual or a group in a particular
situation as objectively as possible.
Purpose of Testing
• Assessment of present status of
an individual
• Expressing probability of future
success
• Diagnosing the causes of lack of
expected performance
• For remedial measures
• For academic or vocational
guidance
• Classification and comparison of
individual or group
• Undertaking research to answering
various questions
3. Observation
•Not mere looking
•It’s the purposeful, goal oriented perception of an object or situation
•The teacher observes the behaviors of the student, if any relevant
feature notice in behavior should be recorded
as objectively as possible.
•In observation subjectivity of the observer will be often reflected in
the judgment.
Different types of observation
1)
Controlled observation/Experiment:
Observation under controlled condition.
2)
Uncontrolled observation:
Observation of events as they naturally occur.
3)
Participatory observation:
Observe the students by the observer while participating in the same activity
with the students.
Merits
•Natural & Flexible
•Economical
•Easy to implement
•Can be used for all ages
Demerits
•Not possible in all conditions
•Highly subjective
•Not accurate
•It fails when the individual hide
the actual behavior.
4.
Interview
•Used to gather information in a face
to face session regarding an individual’s experience, opinion, believes,
feelings, etc
•It’s a conversation with a purpose
Types
of Interviews
1.Structured Interviews
–Questions are preplanned by the
interviewer
–It is systematic
2.Unstructured Interviews
–Questions are not preplanned by the
interviewer
–It is flexible
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5.
Case Study
•It is the indepth study of a case
such as an individual, a family, a community, an institution or a group
•It aims to solve the deep rooted
problems
Merits
Gives holistic picture about an
individual
Helps to solve the problem.
Productive in nature
Demerits
Subjective
Time consuming
Generalisation is not possible
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6. Sociometry
•J. L Moreno developed
•Its used for describing the social
preferences of individuals in a group.
•It reveals the social acceptance of
an individual & their inter personal relationships
•It will help the teacher to identify
STARS
•Who chosen by many
CLIQUES
•Small groups, who have chosen
exclusively among themselves
ISOLATES
•Who are chosen by nobody
7. Projective Techniques
•Used in personality
assessment
•Used to collect
data which cannot be collected directly from the individual
•It helps to
project one’s inner feeling in an ‘unconscious’ manner
Examples
for Projective Techniques
•Rorschach‘s
Ink Blot Test
•Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT)
•Word
Association Test (WAT)
•Sentence
Completion Test
•Children’s
Apperception Test (CAT)
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Ø RECENT
TRENDS IN EVALUATION
Ø CCE
(Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation) & Grading System
Ø CCE (Continuous and Comprehensive
Evaluation)
Relevance
It
better covers the scope of education
Measurement
of all domains
It
provides Personal, vocational and academic guidance
Better
reflects strengths and weaknesses of learner
It
facilitate learning process
Provides
immediate feedback
Reduces
examination stress
Ø
Grading
System
•Derived
from ‘Gradus’ (Latin) means step.
•student’s
level of performance is classified in to a few classificatory units using
letter grades
1. Direct Grading
•Performance
is assessed in qualitative terms.
•Evaluator
gives the most appropriate letter grade to each subject like A, B, C, D, E
without assigning scores.
•Preferred
for noncognitive learning outcomes.
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Grade Point Average (GPA)
2. Indirect Grading
•Evaluator
awarding grades through marks
•Convert
the mark to letter grades
•Two types
A.Absolute
B.Relative
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A.Absolute Grading
•Based
on predetermined standard which becomes a reference point for assessment of
student’s performance
B.Relative Grading
•Range
vary in tune with the relative position of the group
•The
evaluation is done according to the level of performance of members
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Ø
REFORMS
IN EXAMINATION
•Semester System
•Open Book Examination
•Online Examination
Semester
System
•Whole
academic year is divided in to two halves
•Final
examinations are held twice a year
•Continuous
assessment of student’s performance
•Increased
rapport between teachers and students
•Great
dependency on tutorials, projects, assignments etc
Demerits
•Learning
is made in to Piecemeal
•Lacks
continuity
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•Administrative
burden
•Increasing
number of examination
•Not
economic
Open
Book Examination
•Allowed
to bring their text books, notes and other reference materials or to access
recourses and references during examination
•It
may also include assigning standard set of teaching materials and examination
questions before the examination so that students may prepare in advance
•It
permits take home examinations without take help from others
Merits
•Less
demanding on memory
•Examination
becomes a learning process
•Verifies
ability to retrieve information
•Enhance
the comprehension and synthesizing skills
•It
reduces examination anxiety
•Permits
higher order questions
Demerits
•Difficult
to ensure equitable recourses for all students
•Libraries
usually possess few copies of the same book
•More
space is needed during examinations
•Students
are unfamiliar with the exam
•Clear
procedures and rules are still evolving
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Online
Examination
•New
technique of conducting examination by using internet which facilitate the
conduct of examination without face to face conduct between the examinee and
examiner.
•At
the same time permitting the record of the examinees' response instantaneously
Example:
SBI Clerical grade exam conducting on JulyAugust 2014
Merits
•Scoring
speed
•Reduces
travelling
•Reduces
the chance of copying
•Can
use multiple set questions
•Easier,
time saving and comfortable
•Timing
can be need flexible
•Minimum
employ requirement
Demerits
•Good
broadband facility needed
•Students
acquaintance and speed on the key board is a limiting factor
•Easy
manipulations or malpractices
•Need
of Technical Knowledge
•Electricity/Power
failure problems.
•Less
freedom for selecting sections. Limited time for each section while writing
exam
•Risk
of loosing what has been recorded
Ø
USE OF ICT IN EVALUATION
At present the paper pencil tests are
conducted for evaluating the academic performance of students. These tests are
conducted in the group setting. The content coverage is poor and students
cannot use them at their own. These tests are evaluated by the teachers and
they may not give feedback immediately to each and every student. It may be due
to this that students are unable to know their weakness and do not make any
attempt to improve upon them.
ICT can be made use effectively in the
evaluation. One such attempt has been made by Sansanwal and Dahiya (2006) who
developed Computer Based Test in Research Methodology and Statistics. It has
been titled as Test your Understanding: Research Methods and Statistics. This
test can be used by individual student to evaluate his learning. The student
can instantaneously get the feedback about the status of his understanding. If
the answer is wrong, he even can get the correct answer. It goes a long way in
improving the learning and teacher has no role to play in it. It is left up to
students to use it. Such tests can be uploaded on the website for wider use.
The students from other institutes can also make use of it. Not only the
students even the teachers can also use it
to assess their own understanding of the subject. If used by teachers before
teaching the topic, they can prepare the topic properly. Such software can be
used for internal assessment. Thus, ICT can be used to improve the quality of
pre as well as inservice teacher’s training.
Ø
Online Examinations can be widely used in
Evaluation system.
Ø
OMR sheets can be used in Objective type
tests.
Ø
Online surveys, Online interviews etc can
be used in evaluation
Ø Spread
Sheets
·
Is an interactive computer application programme
for organization and analysis of data in tabular form.
·
Develop as computerized simulations of paper
accounting worksheet.
·
Data represented as cells of an array, organized
in rows and columns.
·
Spread sheets are used in computer programmes
like Microsoft Excel, SPSS etc
Advantages of Using
spread sheets
·
Makes the organization and consolidation of data
easier.
·
Enable to calculate all basic statistics.
·
Make Graphical representation easy
·
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Ø BASIC STATISTICS IN EVALUATION
Ø Statistics – Definition
“Statistics is the science which deals with
collection, classification and tabulation of numeric facts as a basis for
explanation, description and comparison of phenomenon” 
Lovitt
“Statistics may be defined as the
collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data”
Croxten and Cowden
Statistics is the collection,
classification, organisation, analysis, interpretation & conclusion of the
numerical data
Ø How it Helps/Uses of Statistics
•Collection of Data
•Classification of Data
•Organisation of Data
•Analysis of Data
•Interpretation of Data
•Conclusion of Data
Ø Graphical
and Diagrammatic representation of data
The following are commonly used graphs and
Diagrams.
1.
Histogram
2.
Frequency Polygon
3.
Frequency Curve
4.
Cumulative Frequency Curve (Ogive)
a. Less than Cumulative Frequency
Curve (Less than Ogive)
b. Greater than Cumulative
Frequency Curve (Greater than Ogive)
5.
Pie Diagram (Sector Diagram)
6.
Bar Diagram
1. Histogram
Graphical representation of continuous
frequency distribution
It is a graph including vertical
rectangles with no space between the rectangles.
The class interval taken along the
horizontal axis (X – axis) and the respective class frequencies are taken on
the vertical axis (Y – axis) using suitable scales of each classes.
For each class a rectangle is drawn
with base as width of the class and height as the class frequency.
The area of each rectangle will be
proportional to or equal to respective frequencies of the class
The total area of the histogram will
be proportional or equal to the total frequency of the distribution.
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2. Frequency Polygon
It
is a graphical representation of continuous frequency distribution
It
can be constructed by drawing Histogram or directly plotting the points
To
draw Frequency Polygon by drawing Histogram, join the midpoints of the top of
the rectangles of the Histogram using straight lines
Frequency
Polygon can also drawn by joining the consecutive points, plotted by taking the
midpoints of the classes on Xaxis and corresponding frequencies on Yaxis.
The
end points are extended at each end and to join the Xaxis.
The
total area under the Frequency Polygon is equal to or proportional to
(numerically) the total frequency of the given distribution.
3. Frequency Curve
It
is a graphical representation of continuous frequency distribution
It
can be constructed by drawing Histogram or directly plotting the points
To
draw Frequency curve by drawing Histogram, join the midpoints of the top of
the rectangles of the Histogram using smooth curve by free hand method
Frequency
curve can also drawn by joining the consecutive points, plotted by taking the
midpoints of the classes on Xaxis and corresponding frequencies on Yaxis.
The
end points are extended at each end and to join the Xaxis.
The
total area under the Frequency Curve is equal to or proportional to
(numerically) the total frequency of the given distribution.
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4. Cumulative Frequency Curve (Ogive)
It is the graphical representation of
cumulative Frequency Distribution
Two types
a). Less than Cumulative Frequency Curve
(Less than Ogive)
It is the graphical representation
of Less than Cumulative Frequency distribution.
Less than Cumulative Frequency
Curve is drawn by joining smoothly the points obtained by plotting the upper
limit of the actual classes against their Less than cumulative Frequencies.
b). Greater than Cumulative Frequency Curve
(Greater than Ogive)
It is the graphical representation
of Greater than Cumulative Frequency distribution.
Greater than Cumulative Frequency
Curve is drawn by joining smoothly the points obtained by plotting the lower
limit of the actual classes against their Greater than cumulative Frequencies.
5.
Pie Diagram
Pie
diagram consist of circle whose area proportional to the magnitude of the
variable they present
The
component part of the variable represented by means of sectors of the circle
The
area of the sector proportional to the frequencies of the component parts of
the variable.
If A1 and A2 are the total magnitude of the two
variables, to represent the data by means of Pie diagram, draw two circles with
radius r1 and r2 given
by
Is a
circle broke down in to component sections on the basis of percentage
its
used when the aggregate & their subdivisions are to be shown together
7. Bar Diagram (simple Bar Diagram)
Bar diagram is the simplest
diagrammatic representation of data.
They are also called one
dimensional diagram.
These diagrams are generally drawn
in the shape of horizontal or vertical bars.
The bars should be of equal breadth
and the height of the bars should be proportional to the
magnitude of each quantity.
Leave equal space between the bars.
Ø Diagrammatic and Graphic representation – Merits
It
permits easy visualization
Easy
to understand the nature of the data
Comparative
study of different aspect of a given data is possible.
Help
analysis of the data
Help
to interpret and draw conclusion
They
are interesting, attractive, and impressive
They
are the simplest method of presenting data
They
have universal validity; they are used to supply information to common man
They
give a bird’s eyeview of the entire data
They
have a great memorizing effect
Ø Diagrammatic and Graphic representation –
Limitations
It is difficult to show minor
differences with their help
Diagram can be used only to show a
limited amount of information
Diagrams show only approximate
values
It is subjective in character; its
interpretation varies from person to person.
Diagrams and graphs can be misused
very easily
Diagrams and graphs are not
substitute of the original data
Ø Measures
of Central Tendency
•Central
Reference value
•Represents
concentration of measures among a set of measures
•The
value of the point around which scores tend to cluster is called ‘Measures of
Central Tendency’.
•A
single value that describes the characteristics of the entire data
1.Arithmetic Mean
2.Median
3.Mode
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1. Arithmetic Mean (Average)
Case – I: Ungrouped Data (Discrete
data)
Arithmetic Mean – Merits
It
is rigidly defined
AM
is easy to understand
Simple
to calculate
Based
on all observations
It
is capable for further algebraic treatment.
Arithmetic Mean – demerits
AM
is affected by extreme values
AM
may lead to wrong conclusion if the figures from which it is computed are not
known.
AM
can’t be calculated for a distribution having open end classes.
2. MEDIAN
Median
is defined as the middle most observation when the observations are arranged in
ascending or descending order of magnitude.
Median – Merits
It
is rigidly defined
It
is easy to understand
Simple
to calculate
It
can be located by mere inspection
It is not affected by extreme values
It can be calculated for a distribution having open end classes
It can be determined graphically.
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Median –
demerits
It
is not based on all observations
Median
is a nonalgebraic measure and hence not suitable for further algebraic treatment
It
is can’t be used for computing other statistical measures such as Standard
Deviation, Coefficient of correlation etc.
When
there are wide variations between the values of different scores, a Median may
not be
representative
of the distribution.
3. MODE
Mode
is the value of the variable which occurs most frequently.
In
certain cases such as exact Mode may not exist or there may be Two or Three
Modes in a
distribution.
When
there are Two Modes we call it BiModal Distribution
If
there are Three Modes, we call it TriModal Distribution.
Mode – Merits
Easy
to locate
Not
affected by extreme values
Can
calculate the Mode for the distribution having openend classes, if openend
classes have less frequency
It
is useful in business matters.
Mode – demerits
It
is not based on all observations
It
is not capable for further algebraic treatment
A
slight change in the distribution may extensively disturb the Mode
In a
ungrouped data, if no score is repeated, it may lead to wrong conclusion that
the distribution have no mode.
As
there be 2 or 3 modal values, it becomes impossible to set a definite value of
a Mode.
Ø
MEASURES OF DISPERSION (MEASURES OF
VARIABILITY)
Measures
of central tendency need not give an exact picture of the distribution.
If
we compare two groups, merely on the basis of the average, there is a
possibility of being mislead to incorrect judgment
Eg: consider the Marks of two Groups
2, 8, 20, 28, 42  Group 1
18, 19, 20, 21, 22  Group
2
Here when we calculate the Mean for both
groups, we get Mean = 20
But when we examine the scores, we can find
that Group1 is Heterogeneous Group and
Group2 is a Homogeneous Group.
The
statistical measures used to determine the Nature and extent of dispersion of
the scores are known as Measures of Dispersion or Measures
of Variability.
Measures
of Dispersion measures the spreading of observations from the central value of
the distribution.
Commonly used Measures of Dispersion
1. Range
2. Quartile Deviation
3. Mean Deviation
4.
Standard Deviation
1. RANGE
Range is the difference between the highest
and lowest scores in a Distribution.
Range
– Merits
Simplest measure of dispersion
Easy to calculate and easy to
understand
Range
– Merits
Not based on all observations.
Very mush affected by extreme values.
It is influenced by fluctuations of
sampling.
For openend classes, calculation of
Mode is impossible.
2.
QUARTILE DEVIATION (SEMI INTER QUARTILE RANGE)
The quartile deviation is half the difference
between the upper and lower quartiles in a distribution.
It is a measure of the spread through
the middle half of a distribution.
It can be useful because it is not
influenced by extremely high or extremely low scores.
Quartile: One of the
four divisions of observations which have been grouped into four equalsized
sets based on their statistical rank.
Lower Quartile (first quartile) Q1:
first point of division of observations which have been grouped into four
equalsized sets based on their statistical rank.
Upper Quartile (Third quartile) Q3:
Third point of division of observations which have been grouped into four
equalsized sets based on their statistical rank.
Second Quartile Q2: Second point of
division of observations which have been grouped into four equalsized sets
based on their statistical rank.
Second Quartile is called Median
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me : pklsabarish@gmail.com
3.
MEAN DEVIATION (AVERAGE DEVIATION)
Mean Deviation is the average of the
deviations of the scores taken from the Mean
It may be calculated by taking the
deviations of each of the scores from the mean and find the average of these
scores.
Deviations may –ve or +ve, so take
absolute value of deviations.
4.
STANDARD DEVIATION
Standard Deviation is the square root
of the average of the squares of the deviations of the scores taken from the
mean. SD denoted by the symbol σ (sigma).
The Arithmetic Mean (Average) of the
squares of deviations is known as Variance.
Standard Deviation is the square root
of the Variance.
Calculation
of Standard Deviation – Steps
1.
Find the Arithmetic Mean of the given data.
2.
Find the deviations from Arithmetic Mean of scores.
3.
Find the average of squares of deviations taken from the Mean.
4.
Find the square root of the average of squares of deviations.
Standard
Deviation – Advantages
Rigidly defined
Based on all the observations
It is capable for further algebraic
treatment
SD is used in many advance
statistical studies
It is less affected by fluctuations
in sampling
Ø
MODEL & PREVIOUS QUESTIONS
1Mark
1.Mention
any two tools of evaluation
2 Marks
1.Point
out two measures used for finding reliability of a test.
2.What
are the functions of evaluation
3.Find
the median of the scores 48,25,37,19,28,44
4.Define
standard deviation
5.‘Validity
is a conditions for reliability’explain
6.Compute
the mean scores of 50,32,71,64,43
7.A
reliable test need not always be valid. Substantiate
8.Mention
any two tools of evaluation
9.What
is a test is said to be ‘objective’
10.
Differentiate
Formative and Summative evaluation
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4 Marks
1.Briefly Explain ‘measures of dispersion’
2.Explain the grading system followed in our schools
3.Mention any four features of modern concept of evaluation
4.Briefly explain any two essential qualities required for a good
evaluation tool
5.Write a short note on the graphical representation of
statistical data
6.What are the functions of evaluation
10 Marks
1.Differentiate
measurement and evaluation. What are the functions of evaluation? Explain the
major techniques employed in evaluating pupil performance.
2.
Differentiate measurement and evaluation. What are the functions of evaluation?
Explain
the grading system followed in our schools.