Monday, 21 September 2015

B.Ed. notes-Educational Technology- MODULE IV :Technology Mediated Learning

B.Ed. notes-Educational Technology

MODULE IV :Technology Mediated Learning

Prepared by
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant Professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education

Attur, Thrissur.

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Technology Mediated Learning - Meaning
         'Technology mediated learning' (TML) is an 'umbrella' term, incorporating different approaches to using computers in learning and teaching: computer-aided/assisted learning (CAL), computer-mediated communication (CMC) etc.
         Technology-mediated learning refers to a learning experience that is significantly moderated through the use of information and communication technology.
         Advanced information and communication technology is increasingly viewed as a key resource in enabling Technology-mediated learning in  education.
         E-resources are those resources which include documents in electronic or e-format that can be accessed via Internet in digital library environment.
         E-resources may be delivered on CD-ROM / DVD, over the Internet and so on.
         e-books are books that are available to be read electronically on a variety of devices, including traditional computers, iPads, Sony e-readers, iPhones, tabs, smartphones, and more.
         Sometimes e-audiobooks are also considered as e-books.
e-Learning - Meaning
         e-Learning is the use of technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere.
         E-Learning is the process of delivering formal and informal learning and training activities and events through the use of all electronic media such as Internet, intranet, extranet, CD-ROM, video tape, TV, cell phones, computer technology, etc.
e-Learning - Definition
         “E-learning refers to the use of the internet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance”               -   Rosenberg (2001)
         "E-Learning means the delivery of learning with the assistance of interactive, electronic technology, whether offline or online."

Features & Impact of e-Learning
         Learning is self-paced and gives students a chance to speed up or slow down as necessary.
         Learning is self-directed, allowing students to choose content and tools appropriate to their differing interests, needs, and skill levels.
         Accommodates multiple learning styles using a variety of delivery methods geared to different learners; more effective for certain learners.
         Geographical barriers are eliminated, opening up broader education options.
         24/7 accessibility makes scheduling easy and allows a greater number of people to attend classes.
         On-demand access means learning can happen precisely when needed.
         Travel time and associated costs (parking, fuel, vehicle maintenance) are reduced or eliminated.
         Overall student costs are frequently less (tuition, residence, food, child care).
         Fosters greater student interaction and collaboration.
         Fosters greater student/instructor contact.
         Enhances computer and Internet skills.
e-Learning - Types
         Off-line Learning
         On-line Learning
        Synchronous on-line learning
        Asynchronous on-line learning
Off-line Learning
         Off-line : When a computer or other device is not turned on or connected to other devices, it is said to be ‘off-line’
         Offline can also mean not being connected to the Internet.
         “Off-line learning refers to the use of the off-line  e-resources to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance”
         Offline Learning expands the learning experience to remote students who are not connected to a network.
Off-line learning -Importance
         E-learning is possible without internet connection.
         Individualized learning is possible.
         Enhance multisensory  and multimedia approach.
         Learner can learn according to his own learning pace.
         Learner can access valid information.
         Increases learning effectiveness.
         Is more appealing over traditional, lecture-based teaching methods.
         Frees the learner from routine tasks.
         Creates interest in students.
On-line learning
         Online learning can be defined as an approach to learning that utilizes Internet technologies to communicate and collaborate in an educational context.
         This includes technology that supplements traditional classroom learning with web-based components and learning environments where the educational process is experienced online.
Synchronous on-line learning
         Synchronous online learning those that require students and instructors to be online at the same time.
         Lectures, discussions, and presentations occur at a specific hour.
         All students must be online at that specific hour in order to participate.
         Synchronous on-line learning takes place through online lessons guided by the instructor using video conferencing, Internet radio and chat where the students login in real-time with the teacher.
Synchronous Online learning Elements

         Text Chatting
         Voice Chatting
         Video conferencing
         Web conferencing
         Internet radio

Features of Synchronous  on-line learning
         Discussions make learning more effective and interesting.
         Quick response
         Ensures and supports personal participation
         Increases motivation.
Asynchronous on-line learning
         Asynchronous on-line learning allows the learner to complete web-based learning at their own pace, without live interaction with the instructor.
         Instructors provide materials, lectures, tests, and assignments that can be accessed at any time.
         Students may be given a timeframe – usually a one week window – during which they need to connect at least once or twice with instructors.
Asynchronous Online learning Elements

         Virtual Libraries/Repositories of Documents, Presentations, Graphics, Audio Files, and Video
         Discussion Boards
         Social Networking

Features of Asynchronous on-line learning
         Receiver has more time to think and comprehend before responding.
         Increases the ability to process information.
         Supports cognitive participation.

On-line learning -Importance

         Enhancing student-to-student and faculty-to-student communication.
         Enabling student-centered teaching approaches.
         Providing 24/7 accessibility to course materials.
         Providing just-in-time methods to evaluate student progress.
         Shy and anxious students feel more comfortable expressing ideas.
         Instructors are more accessible
         Online learning environments permit the instructor to build one course, yet implement a variety of resources, so students can utilize materials in whichever way works best for them.
         Accommodate different learning styles
         Provide opportunities for exploration (A careful systematic search)
         Continual access to materials
         Remove the necessity of physical attendance
         Utilize time efficiently
         Reduce faculty workload

Benefits of online learning
         Offer Choice and Flexibility
         Convenient and accountable.
         More individual attention.
         Helps to get diverse of resources and meet different interesting people
         Lifelong learning.
         Financial benefits
         Teaches self-discipline
         Provides better resource persons
         Connects to global village

         Moodle is a software package for producing Internet-based courses and web sites.
         It is a Course Management System(CMS).
         Moodle (abbreviation for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) is a free source e-learning software platform, also known as a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE).
         Moodle was originally developed by Martin Dougiamas to help educators create online courses
         The design and development of Moodle is guided by a "social constructionist pedagogy".
         Constructionism asserts that learning is particularly effective when constructing something for others to experience.
Features of Moodle

         Assignment submission
         Discussion forum
         Files download
         Moodle instant messages
         Online calendar
         Online news and announcement
         Online quiz
         Track progress

         Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over internet, that offers a real-time direct transmission of text-based messages from sender to receiver.
         Through chatting you can share all the stuff in your mind and videos, photos, files in your PC.
         It just require you a PC, internet connection and a chatting software.
         Online chat may address point-to-point communication as well as multicast communication.
         Types of chat – Text Chat, Voice Chat, Video Chat etc.
List of Most Common Chat Programs

         Facebook Messenger
         Google Talk
         MSN Messenger
         Paltalk Messenger
         Windows Live Messenger
         Yahoo! Instant Messenger

Chatting - Importance
         provides the opportunity to interact and learn with and from people from different cultures.
         Collaborative learning towards knowledge construction.
         No restrictions regarding location.
         Can chat and talk with same minded friends online
         Can take various classes like teaching, cooking, and many other classes as well through chat.
         Made world as a small village for the internet users.
         The chatting engines have made the communication very simple and affordable for the people.
         To share and gain information
         What is e-mail?
         E-mail implies electronic mail.
         It is a system through which messages can be send between computers that are linked electronically over a network.
         The e-mail address will have two parts to it
         Domain name

Essential things for sending e-mail.
         Internet connection
         Address (e-mail account) of the sender.
         Address (e-mail account) of the receiver.
         The content of the message.
How to have an e-mail account in gmail . com/
         Open the browser.
         Go to the site by typing on the location. ( or )
         Click on ‘Create Email Account’ button.
         An Account creation form will be displayed
         Enter all information.
         After filling up all the information, click on ‘Create My Account’ button.
How to handle incoming e-mails?
         Open the browser.
         Go to the site.
         Click on e-mail button.
         Enter your e-mail address and password.
         Click on ‘sign in’ or press ‘enter’ button.
         Various buttons like compose, send, forward, reply will be displayed.
         To see the e-mail, click on ‘inbox’.
         Mail can be read by double clicking on that mail.
How to handle incoming e-mails?
         To send an e-mail
        Click on ‘compose’ button.
        Enter receiver’s address in ‘To address’ box.
        Type the message and Click on ‘send’ button.
         To reply
        Click on ‘reply’ button.
        Type the message and Click on ‘send’ button.
         To forward the e-mail
        Click on ‘forward’ button.
        Enter receiver’s address in ‘to address’ box and Click on ‘send' button.
Discussion Forum
v  Web based application available on internet for holding discussions.
v  It provides asynchronous communication.
v  Also known as discussion boards, bulletin boards, forums etc.
Importance of Discussion Forum
v   Faster, cheaper and most effective way for discussion
v  Subject based Forums- Teachers & students can interact.
v  Students Feel more comfort.
v  Students get time to reflect & summarise.
v  Allow more students and teachers from different areas to participate in discussion.
v  Ensures participation
v  Electronic version of a journal.
Importance of E-journals
v   Easily accessible than printed copy.
v  Multiple access- Same resource can be used at the same time by a number of users.
v  People from all round the world can read it using internet connectivity.
v  Hyper links can be provided.
v  Printed journals need large space for storage where as e-journals can be stored in digital storage devices.
v  Less chance for damage.

v  E-reading is the process of reading textual data like books, newspapers, magazines etc digitally.
v  E-reader is a handheld electronic device designed to be used for reading e-books and similar digital materials.
Eg: Amazons Kindle, Sony Reader.
(smart phones, tablets etc)
Advantages of E-readers
v  Better Readability (in sunlight), auto bright adjust.
v  Long battery life.
v  Internet and Wi-Fi connectivity.
v  Can use memory cards.
v  MP3 support, 3G , colour, touch screen etc.
Advantages of E-reading
v   Easily accessible than printed copies.
v  Multiple access- Same resource can be used at the same time by a number of users.
v  People from all round the world can read it using internet connectivity.
v  Hyper links can be provided.
v  Large number of resources can be accessed.

         A blog (web log) is a discussion or informational site published on the World Wide Web ‘posts’ typically displayed in reverse chronological order (the most recent post appears first).
         A majority of blogs are interactive, allowing visitors to leave comments and even message.
         A typical blog combines text, images, videos and link to other blogs and websites and other media related to its topic.
         Authoring a blog, maintaining a blog or adding an article to an existing blog is called blogging.
         Individual article on the blog are called ‘blog posts’ or ‘posts’ or ‘entries’.
         A person post these entries is called ‘blogger’

Blog - Types
         Personal blogs
         Micro blogs
         Corporate and organizational blogs
         By genre

        political blogs
        health blogs
        travel blogs
        fashion blogs
        project blogs
        education blogs
        classical music blogs

         Reverse blog (A Reverse Blog is composed by its users rather than a single blogger)
         By media type

        Photo blogs
        Link blogs
        image blogs

Blog - Importance
         A blog is a webpage that serve as a publically accessible journal for an individual.
         Students can quickly catch-up if they miss a class.
         The teacher can use the blog as a course plan.
         Student can use blog as reference area.
          blogs can be used to motivate students to do more reading and encourage them to improve their writing style.
         Blogs can be used to bring out the diversity in the class room in terms of learning style.
Top 10 Free Online Blogging Platforms

         TypePad Micro
         Posterous Spaces


Computer Assisted Instruction(CAI)
v   CAI, is the use of a computer to provide instruction.
v   Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.

·         Definition
“CAI is an interaction between a student, a computer controlled display and a response entry device for the purpose of achieving educational outcomes.”
Ø Features of CAI
*        In CAI there is an interaction between an individual student and computer.
*        The computer is able to display the instructional material to the individual student.
*        The student take benefit of the displayed material and respond to it.
*        These responses decides the future course of instruction to that learner.
*        The interaction between student and computer helps to  realise the instructional objectives.
*        Instruction for a number of learners at a time.
*        Automatic recording of learners performance.
*        Variety in the use of methods and techniques.

Ø Technologies of CAI
*        Hardware
*        Software.

Ø Types of CAI
*        Instruction type
*        Drill and Practice
*        Tutorials
*        Instructional Games
*        Simulation
*        Practical work oriented
*         Problem Solving

Ø Advantages of CAI
*        Great motivator
*         Instantaneous response/immediate feedback to the answers.
*         Self pacing - allow students to proceed at their own pace
*         Helps teacher to devote more time to individual students
*         Privacy helps the shy and slow learner to learns
*         learn more and more rapidly
*         Individual attention
*         Multimedia helps to understand difficult concepts through multi sensory approach
*         Self directed learning – students can decide when, where, and what to learn

Ø Limitations of CAI
*        The computer fails to appreciate the emotions of the student.
*        CAI fails to develop essential features of language competency
*        It is a sort of mechanical approach to education
*        Expensive and uneconomical in terms of educational returns
*        Unavailability of educational software.
*        Can't keep set time table schedules, uniform curricula and examination systems.
*        Over use of multimedia may divert the attention from the content
*         Lack of infrastructure

Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)
v   CMI is simply the use of computers in the management of instruction and educational administration.
v   Computer-managed instruction is an instructional strategy whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, record keeping, progress tracking, and assessment of learner performance. 
*        Definitions
“CMI is the systematic control of instruction by computer. It is characterised by testing ,diagnostic learning, prescription and through record keeping”
“CMI includes all applications of the computer aid to the instruction and in instructional management”

Ø Applications of CMI
*        Diagnosis of the entry behaviour of learners.
*        Setting of instructional objectives.
*        Generating individualised instructional plan.
*        Generating instructional materials and learning experiences
*        Availability of instructional material into curriculum units
*        Monitoring of progress
*        Providing remedial instructions
*        Management of information and record keeping
*        Organization of testing and evaluation programmers
*        Generating all types of reports.
*        Students computer grade book- Used to store students scores or grades on assignments/tests etc .
*        Eg : Software like Foxpro, Dbase, MS access, MS Excel.
*        In test Generation- Randomly selecting questions.
*        Test Scoring

         Definition: Teleconferencing is an aggregation of audio conferencing, video conferencing, and data conferencing (refers to a communication session among two or more participants sharing computer data in real time. ), and includes multiple participants in a live real-time session.
         Teleconferencing consists of a live real time session between multiple participants with the ability to hear and see each other as well as share data and applications.
Teleconferencing - Type
         Teleconferencing may be classified into three according to the use of media
        Audio teleconferencing
        Video teleconferencing
        Computer Teleconference
        Audio graphic teleconferencing
         Audio Teleconference:
        Voice-only; sometimes called conference calling. Interactively links people in remote locations via telephone lines.
         Video Teleconference:
        Combines audio and video to provide voice communications and video images. Can be one-way video/two-way audio, or two-way video/two-way audio. It can display anything that can be captured by a TV camera
         Computer Teleconference:
        Uses telephone lines to connect two or more computers and modems. Anything that can be done on a computer can be sent over the lines. It can be synchronous or asynchronous.
         Audiographics Teleconference: Uses narrowband telecommunications channels to transmit visual information such as graphics, alpha-numerics, documents, and video pictures as an adjunct to voice communication
         Skype is a proprietary (Protected by trademark or patent or copyright)  VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol) service and software application.
Skype - Features
         Registered users of Skype are identified by a unique Skype Name, and may be listed in the Skype directory.
         Skype allows these registered users to communicate through both instant messaging and voice chat.
         Voice chat allows telephone calls between pairs of users and conference calling
         Skype's text chat client allows group chats, emoticons, storing chat history and editing of previous messages.
         Offline messages were implemented in a beta of version 5, but removed after a few weeks without notification.
         Skype service allows Skype users to receive calls on their computers dialed by conventional phone subscribers to a local Skype phone number.
         Skype supports conference calls up to 25 people at a time.
         Group video calling is available for Premium subscribers between a maximum of 10 people.
         Skype has 663 million registered users as of EOY 2010.
Skype - Educational use
         Skype is being used to facilitate language exchange.
         Teachers are using Skype in unique ways to fulfill educational goals.
         The videoconferencing aspect of the software is provides a way to connect students who speak different languages and reach out to experts in varying fields of study.
         It provides teachers with a way to make their classrooms more interactive and interesting.
         teachers and students can meet other students, talk to experts, and share ideas.
         Teachers can collaborate with other teachers around the world and design different learning experiences for their students.
         Sunclock is a software application that delineates the countries experiencing day or night at a given time on a world map using light and shade.
         Time differences across countries, distances between regions, and longitudes and latitudes of various places are available on Sunclock.
         Sunclock offers geographical information including positions of the sun and the moon at a given time on a given day.
Features of Sunclock
         Helps to find GMT (Greenwich Mean Time), Solar times of major cities.
         Provides lattitudes, longitudes, sunrise, sunsets etc of important countries.
         Shows mutual distances of various locations on Earth.
         Shows meridians, parallels, tropics, Arctic circle etc.
         Evolution of seasons can be seen through accelerating time.
Shows all times zones in the world

         K-Star is free, open source Astronomy software.
         It provides an accurate graphical simulation of the night sky, from any location of the earth, at ant date and time.
         The display includes up to 100 million stars, 13000 deep sky objects, all 8 planets, the Sun and Moon, and thousand of comets and asteroids.
         Helps to explore the Universe.
         Helps to access information on sky objects.
         Helps to print high quality, highly customizable star charts at different zoom level for each object.

Features of K-Star
         Graphical simulation of sky with planets, 100 million stars, 10000 deep sky objects, comets, asteroids etc.
         Complete astro photography.
         Downloadable catalogs.
         Online update options.
         Observing list tool to plan observations.
         Adjustable simulation speed in order to view phenomena that happen over long time scales.
         Access to several internet resources for information, imagery and data.

Role of the Teacher in Computer Mediated Learning

         As an instructor and demonstrator
         Helps to search for information.
         Helps to analyze the learning materials.
         Helps in editing the information.
         Helps in presentation of information.
         As a Scaffolder.
         Provide proper support, guidance and motivation
         Show the learner the wonderful world of I.T and its use in education.
         Help the student to overcome the disadvantages of I.T
         Make aware and protect and the student from misuses of I.T
         Provides feedback.
         Gives directions for the effective use of I.T