B.Ed. Notes- Educational Technology
Module II : EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant Professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
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Ø Revolutions in Education – Eric Ashby (1967)
Ist Revolution: Revolution of shifting the task of educating the young ones from parents to teachers and from home to school.
IInd Revolution : Adoption of the ‘written words’ as tool of education.
IIIrd Revolution : Widespread availability of printed books.
IVth Revolution : Developments in Electronics and its use in education.
Ø Technology – Meaning
The word Technology is derived from Greek word ‘technic’ meaning art or skill and ‘logia’ meaning science or study.
Thus Technology is the science of study of an art or skill.
Technology is defined as “application of scientific knowledge to practical purpose”.
(International dictionary on Education)
Ø Educational Technology - Meaning – Different viewpoints
1) Application of Technology in teaching process: Use of hardware in education - (James O. Finn & Others)
2) Application of Scientific Principles to instruction: Emphasis Psychological principles of learning. - (Skinner & Gagne)
3) Application of system approach to education and Training: Emphasis the interrelation of Men, Machine, Methods, Media and Materials (5M’s).
According to this view, education should be considered a system in which Machines, Materials, Media, Men and Methods are interrelated parts and are organized in such a way as they work together for the fulfillment of specific educational objectives. – (Davis & Hartley)
Ø Educational Technology – Definitions
1) “Educational Technology is defined as development, application, and evaluation of systems, techniques, and aids to improve the process of human learning” - NCET (National Council of Educational Technology, U.K.,1967)
2) “Educational Technology may be defined as the application of the laws as well as recent discoveries of science and technology to the process of education” - S.S. Kulkarni
3) “Educational Technology is the application of scientific method and techniques to education” – B.P Lulla.
4) Educational Technology is in the form of detailed application of the psychology of learning to practical teaching problems -De Ceoco (1971)
5) Educational Technology defined as science of techniques and methods by which educational goals could be realized - Shiv K. Mitra (1968)
Ø Nature and Characteristics of Educational Technology
· ET is the applications of Scientific principles to education.
· ET is the development of methods and techniques for effective teaching-learning.
· ET is not confined to the use of electronic media in Education. It includes systems approach also.
· ET involves input, output and process aspects of Education.
Ø Benefits of educational technology
· Technology can make education more productive.
· Technology can make education Individualised.
· Technology can give instruction a more scientific base.
· Technology can make access to education more immediate and more equal.
· Technology can make instruction more powerful and interesting.
Ø Educational Technology-Objectives
1) Transmitting information
2) Assisting the practice of specific skills.
3) Contribution to the provision of feedback.
4) Meeting the problem of quantity- The need to reach out to maximum number of students.
5) Individualising instruction- To offer greater opportunities for independent study.
6) To design, modify and develop appropriate equipment/aids suitable and relevant to the educational process.
7) To provide motivation, interest, accuracy and more productivity in learning.
8) To realise the Learning Objectives more effectively
9) To identify the educational needs of the learner.
10) To identify the necessary teaching learning materials.
11) To plan teaching strategies, models and methods as per the need and objectives.
12) To evaluate the effectiveness of teaching strategy in terms of learning outcomes.
13) To provide appropriate feedback to student as well as teachers.
14) To modify the teaching learning process on the basis of feedback received.
15) Equalising educational opportunity.
Ø Two terms in Education related to Technology
1) Technology in education
• Technology in Education is the application of technology to any process of education.
• Use of the technological advancement in terms of various equipments, materials, and machines for educational purposes.
• It involves the increasingly complex range of audiovisual equipment, sophisticated electronic devices like projectors, films, radio, TV, tape recorder, computers etc for individualized and group learning.
2) Technology of Education
• Technology of Education is the application of psychology of learning theories, principles of instruction, curriculum, and learning to the process of education.
• It enables a teacher to use a variety of media and modes to make his teaching effective.
• In this the educationalist are involved in designing and evaluation of system of learning.
Ø Approaches to Educational Technology. (Three-Tier Approaches to Educational Technology)
A.A. Lemsdein (1964) has classified educational technology into three types/approaches.
Hardware Approach (Technology in education)
· This approach implies the use of mechanical materials and equipments in education. Term first introduced by James O. Finn & Others.
· This approach originated from Physical Science and engineering.
· Using technology in the process of education.
· This approach is a by-product of the scientific and technological developments of the 20th century
· In this approach the main feature is the use of audiovisual aids like charts, models, film-strips, slides, audio cassettes, and sophisticated equipments like film projectors, OHP, slide projector, radio, tape recorder, LCD projector, DLP Projector, CD players, DVD Players, TV, computer etc.
· This help for knowledge explosion.
· Helps in reaching out to large numbers and hence help in reducing expenses.
· It leads to an overall efficiency in the educational system.
Software Approach (Technology of Education)
· This approach implies the use of Psychological principles and learning theories in education. Term first introduced by Skinner & Gagne
· Originated from Behavioral Science.
· In software approach, the Psychology of Learning is exploited for the production/development and utilization of software techniques and materials in terms of learning materials, teaching-learning strategies, tools of evaluation and other devices to soften and smoothen the task of teaching and learning.
· System: A system is any collection of interrelated parts that together constitute a larger whole. A number of units working together for a particular goal.
· These component parts, or elements of the system are intimately linked with one another, either directly or indirectly, and any change in one or more elements may affect the overall performance of the system, either beneficially or adversely.
· Term first introduced by Davis & Hartley.
· Definition: System approach is an integrated, programmed complex of instructional media, hardware and personnel whose components are structured as a single unit with a schedule of time and sequential phasing.
· System Approach involves Three Stages
o System Analysis
o System Design and Implementation
o System Evaluation
· System approach is a systematic way of Analysis, designing & implementation and evaluation of a process in terms of its desired objectives.
· In the case of education, Education also can be analyzed in terms of the three components, namely Input, Process and Output.
· System Analysis will help the teacher to establish meaningful relationship between Output, Input and Process.
· This System design should act as the guidelines for the teacher in what to teach, when and what manner.
· Immediate feedback, diagnosis and remediation at every stage should be the main role to be played by System evaluation.
· Evaluation has to be done continuously and should involve formative as well as summative.
Ø Education is a system which can be represented as follows.
Ø Advantages of System Approach
· It provides a framework to build plans for implementing changes in education.
· It helps to identify the suitability of the resource material to achieve the specific goal.
· Technological advance could be used to provide integration of machines, media, and people for attaining the defined goal.
· Continuous evaluation and feedback ensures quality.
· Problems in education can be systematically identified and solved.
Ø Scope of Educational Technology
· Spelling out Educational goals and Objectives.
o Help for the formulation of objectives and goals of education based on individualized and social needs.
· Curriculum Development.
o Planning of curricular and co-curricular inputs in order to realize planned goals and objectives.
· Developing Teaching-Learning materials and Resources.
o Develops necessary learning materials in the form of programmed learning books, computer learning packages, mass media instruction, individualized self-instructional packages etc.
· Developing Human resources.
o ET covers the area of teacher education.
· Developing Strategies.
o Teaching strategies, approaches and methods are devised and developed catering to different types of students.
· Developing Multi-Sensory Aids.
o Design, development of audio visual aids.
· Develops Feedback Mechanism.
o ET develops tool of evaluation to provide feedback.
· Develops Passive Instruction Services.
o Educational radio, TV, computers are used for transmitting information. They are passive services since all decisions are in the hands of the providers, i.e., what to be presented, for how long, in what sequence and when.
· Develops Interactive Instruction Services.
o ET tries to provide opportunities for the learner to control the pace, mode of presentation etc. eg. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Teleconferencing via Internet etc.
· Develops Learning Environments.
o ET develops learning environment that are learner friendly. Eg. Simulation
· Developing Information Resources.
o ET bridging the gap between developments in Information Technology and Education. Information Resources : Eg. E-libraries, On line encyclopedia, World Wide Web,
· Develops Communication Devices.
o ET has developed communication devices for students who have mental capability to communicate, but are not able to speak.
· To Reduce the Burden of Teachers.
o ET supports the teacher in Teaching Learning Process
Ø Communication media
· Communication media refers to the means of delivering and receiving data or information.
Ø Multimedia - Meaning
· A judicious mix of various media such as text, audio, video, graphics and animation.
Ø Components of Multimedia
· Animation (Animation refers to the artificial movements of text or other multimedia objects created in virtual environments using specialized software packages. )
Ø Multimedia Materials in Education
· Computer Simulation Packages
· Educational interactive CD ROMs
· Online materials
· Educational Computer Games
· CAI materials
· Programmed Learning Materials
Ø Disadvantages of multimedia
· Requires special hardware
· Not always compatible
Ø Advantages of Multimedia
· Increases learning effectiveness.
· Is more appealing over traditional, lecture-based teaching methods.
· Offers significant potential in improving personal communications, education and teaching efforts.
· Is easy to use.
· Frees the teacher from routine tasks.
· Creates interest in students
Ø Multisensory - Meaning
· ‘The effective use of various senses for receiving information from various sources is known as multi sensory approach’.
Ø Advantages of multimedia approach
· Makes learning more permanent.
· Supplies a concrete basis for conceptual thinking.
· Creates interest in students.
· Offers reality of experience.
· Gives depth and variety to the learning materials.
· Helps to develop continuity in thought.
· Helps to provide motivation, interest, accuracy and more productivity in learning.
· Helps to realise the Learning Objectives more effectively