Wednesday, 17 June 2015

Methods of Teaching Science-Individualized Laboratory Method

Methods of Teaching Science-Individualized Laboratory Method
Prepared by
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
Attur, Thrissur.

            This is a pupil-centered method.  This method provides opportunities for each student to conduct experiment at his own in the science laboratories.
*          The responsibility of performing experiments is shifted from the teacher to the pupils.
*          Each pupil is provided with a laboratory manual containing instructions and the teacher merely guides and supervises the pupil’s work.  Laboratory becomes a place where the teacher and the taught solve their problems together.
Procedure (Role of Teacher)
The teacher divides the experiment into two groups.  One group to perform experiments by himself for delicate and costly apparatus and other to be conducted by the pupils in the laboratory.

(i)         Preparation for laboratory work
            Laboratory should be thoroughly and skilfully organised
            * Laboratory periods should be correlated with class work
            *  Pupils shouldn’t be doing experiments, which have not been discussed in the class.
            *  Pupils should be told before hand about the setting up of apparatus, records of results   and particulars to be taken care of.
            *  Necessary directions to be taken from text books.
            *  Bring a laboratory note book for arranging necessary equipments of experiemnt and draw neat diagrams and tables for the entry of results.
            *  Pupils whose work is unsatisfactory should not be allowed to do the practical work.

(ii)        Supervision
            * Done by the teacher counts much in the success
            *  Teacher is a leader, inspirer and guide
            *  He must go form student to student giving guidance and brief instructions.
            *  Elaborate instructions need not be given
            *  He should give only hints and thought provoking questions.
            *  He must give personal attention to all students.
            *  He has to help the pupils in setting up apparatus or in drawing up the inference.

(iii)       Division of experiments among pupils
            * Pupils are divided into different batches, one batch doing the same experiment one day.  The same group will be doing another experiment in the next day.  Another cycle of experiments by another group and so on.
            * Pupils should do experiment in pairs which is convenient, since they are beginners.

(iv)       Record of Experiemnts
            *  Every student should have a record book to record results of experiment.  An order is as follows
            (a)  Aim/purpose (principle)    (b)  Apparatus used
            (c)  Procedure                          (d)  Result                     (e)  Conclusion
            1.   It is a child assertive/ centered method.
            2.  It gives more opportunities for pupils to participate actively.
            3.  It gives facilities for developing the laboratory technique and manipulative skills.
            4.  Based on the principle of ‘learning by doing’
            1.  It is a very expensive method
            2.  A lot of time is wasted in conducting experiments
            3.  The dull pupils are often tempted to copy down the results of the brilliant one.
            4.  The teacher’s time and energy are also wasted in checking up the apparatus after every                         period.

            Eg:- Preparation of the allotropes of sulphur-Rhombic, prismatic, plastic, milk of sulphur, oxidation reaction and osmosis.