Methods of Instruction (Types of instructional strategies)-Lecture Method
M.Sc., M.Ed., JRF & NET
Assistant professor in Physical Science, Arafa Institute for Teacher Education
i) Lecture Method
This is a method which is generally followed in colleges and in schools with big classes. The name itself explains the procedure. The teacher talks while pupils listen.
In this method, the teacher acts like a chatter box, talking and talking all the time without ascertaining whether the students are following him or not. The students are spoon-fed and their powers of observation and reasoning, the exercise of which is so essential in the learning process are not stimulated. The teacher seems to be dominating personally.
Teacher vomits out everything from “Examination point of view” and the students digest it order to reprint in the examination. The method is suitable for a class of intelligent pupils who can understand and grasp the lecture with the same speed as they are delivered by the teacher.
There are three phases for a lecture
(i) Preparatory phase (Warm up phase)
Prepare the students to receive the content of the lecture. A variety of activities can be undertaken during this phase. Asking questions to infer the level of knowledge possessed byt the students; directed to all corners of the class at random., relating the new topic to the topic already taught. etc
(ii) Development phase
Most important part of a lecture. Some activities that can be undertaken during this phase are
* Using analogies/comparisons to reduce the complexity.
* Use of illustrations.
* Explaining with aids.
(iii) Consolidation phase- Concluding part
*Reviewing or summarising
* Asking questions, providing feed back
* Giving assignments
* Relating topic to future learning.
Skills associated with the delivery of a lecture
1.Use of body language
Conveying ideas and feeling through the use of gestures, hands, and eyes, is called body language. But overdoing may distract the attention of the students.
2.Use of communication boosters
Like humour, visual aids like photographs and cartoons, thought provoking questions invites the attention of the pupil. Communication boosters become essential for various reasons.
(i) to break the monotony of the teacher talk.
(ii) to sustain the attention span of students which, on an average, is well below the time allotted for the lecture.
(iii) to maintain interest aroused at the beginning of the lecture.
(iv) to improve the effectiveness of the lecture
3.Varying the stimulus
The shift from one stimulus to another smoothly during the delivery of a single lecture is a skill.
Talking for a long time at the same pace and in the same pitch can have a bad effect on the listeners. Varying the pace of the speech the pitch and the loudness can bring a variety by which the attention of the students would be better maintained.
1. It is economical (The method is economic)
* Firstly because no laboratory, apparatus, aids are required
* Secondly, a single teacher can teach any number of students at a time which is impossible by any other method.
* Thirdly, it saves much time and the lengthy syllabus can be very easily covered in a limited time.
2. It is speedy, concise and very easy to follow. The teacher feels secure and satisfied.
3. The method is useful for imparting factual information about historical incidents to pupils.
4. Good lectures have high inspirational value.
1. The method is against the principle of ‘learning by doing’ and does not encourage the habit of independent thinking.
2. It does not provide training in scientific method and does not help the inculcation of scientific attitudes in pupils.
3. There is no assurance for the teacher whether the students have understood what he had taught in the class.
4. The rate of imparting knowledge and information may be too rapid and the students may not get necessary connections of thought.
5. It lays too much stress on memory work which is just to burden the minds of the pupils which is against the principles of teaching science.
6. In this method, the teacher is the active participant while the students are passive listeners, which is opposed to the principles of psychology. The interests, attitudes and capabilities of pupils are ignored.
Lecture method is applicable in following circumstances
1. To introduce some new and difficult topic.
2. To revise the topics already covered.
3. To give some background of a certain topic
4. To introduce to the life histories of great scientists and their struggles and achievements in life.
5. To explain the demonstration which has been done or which is to be done.
6. To impart factual knowledge.
7. To explain certain difficult theoretical points which cannot be demonstrated.
How to make a lecture interesting?
1. Humour should be introduced in the lecture here and there so that the interest of the students is maintained.
2. While making use of this method, it will be beneficial if the teachers give some training in the art of note taking while the lecture is on.
3. At the end of the lecture, time should be given for the students to ask questions and such questions be answered by the teacher without any hesitation. In this way the teacher can make sure whether the students have understood the lesson or not.
4. The lecture should be delivered in good tone, loud voice, clearly and slowly without the use of any ambiguous or bombastic words.
Reference: Science Education by T.K Mathew & Molykutty